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THE LIBRARY 

OF 

THE UNIVERSITY 
OF CALIFORNIA 

LOS ANGELES 




EDWARD SOMERSET, SECOND MARQUIS OF WORCESTER. 



AN EXACT REPRINT 

OF THE FAMOUS 

Century of Inventions, 



THE MARQUIS OF WORCESTER. 

(First Published in'l663.) 



INTRODUCTION, NOTES AND A LIFE OP THE AUTHOR, 



JOHN PHIN. 



W TH PORTRAIT AFTER A PA NT NG BY VANDYKE. 



NEW YOEK : 
THE INDUSTKIAL PUBLICATION COMPANY. 

1887. 

Copyright secured, 1887, by John Phin. 



PREFACE. 



Our object in reprinting the famous " CEKTUBY OF IN- 
VENTIONS," as it is generally called, is not to give any novel 
solutions of the problems which it sets forth, but simply to 
place this famous and exceedingly interesting production 
within the reach of ordinary book-buyers. Although it has 
been several times reprinted, it is so scarce that copies are 
to be had only with considerable difficulty. Of the first 
edition, published in 1663, very few copies are to be found 
outside the shelves of a few well-known public libraries. 
It is said that this is largely due to the fact that all the 
copies that were procurable were bought up and burned by 
a rival inventor (Savary), who claimed to be the first in- 
ventor of the steam engine, Of subsequent reprints it will 
be found on inquiry that they have been so much sought 
after and read that they have been literally "thumbed 
out of existence," as the genial author of "The Book 
Hunter " expresses it in regard to similarly popular books. 

Under these circumstances it is to be hoped that our 
present offering will prove acceptable to a large number of 
those who are interested in the history of inventions and of 
mechanics. 

J. P. 

Cedar Brae, 

October, 1887. 



LIFE 

OF 

EDWARD SOMERSET, 

SECOND MARQUIS OF WORCESTER. 



Edward Somerset alias Plantagenet,* Second Marqu'u jf 
Worcester, like many of the Avisest and best of this eartf 
nay, like the wisest and best bore on his escutcheon Jie 
Baston Sinister. He was descended from John of Gau it, 
Duke of Lancaster, son of Edward the Third. Charles, the 
natural son of Henry Beaufort, third Duke of Somerset, in 
that line, assumed the surname of Somerset, and from him 
was descended the famous author of " The Century of In- 
ventions," who was the eldest son of Henry Lord Herbert 
and Anne, sole daughter and heir of John Lord Russell, eld- 
est son of Francis Russell, Earl of Bedford. He was born 

* See Patent granted by Charles the First on the 1st of April, 1644; 
' diaries, by the Grace of God, King of England, Scotland, France 
and Ireland, defender of the faith, etc., to our right trusty and right 
well beloved cousin, Edward Somerset alias Plantagenet, Lord Herbert, 
Baron Beaufort, of Caldicate, Grismond, Chopstow, Ragland and Gower, 
Earl of Glamorgan, son and heir apparent of our entirely beloved 
cousin, Henry, Earl and Marquis of Worcester, greeting." Etc., etc., etc. 



8 LIFE OF THE MARQUIS OF WORCESTER. 

early in 1601 the exact date 'being unknown. During his 
father's life-time he was known first as Lord Herbert, and 
afterwards as Earl of Glamorgan. On the death of his 
father he succeeded to the titles of Earl and Marquis of 
Worcester. 

His education appears to have been conducted privately 
under the tutorship of a Mr. Adams. It does not appear 
that he was entered at any of the great English colleges, 
though it is possible that he may have been connected with 
some foreign university. Be this as it may, it is quite cer- 
tain that his education was as complete and thorough as 
that of any young man of his time. 

In the year 1628 he married Elizabeth, daughter of Sir 
William Dormer. She bore him one son and two daughters. 
The son, Henry Somerset, was created first Duke of Beau- 
fort. 

It is supposed that shortly after his marriage he retired to 
Raglan Castle and devoted himself to study and experiment, 
but of this we have no record. 

In the year 1635 (May 3151) he lost his wife, to whom he 
was greatly attached. Four years later he married Mar- 
garet, second daughter of Henry O'Brien, Earl of Thomond. 
He obtained by his second wife some valuable possessions, 
and he also became connected with some of the most 
wealthy and powerful families in Ireland. By his second 
wife he had one daughter who died while quite young. 

It is an unfortunate circumstance that we know very little 
of the daily life of the Marquis at this period, and nothing at 



LIFE OF THE MARQUIS OF WORCESTER. 9 

all of his pursuits, studies and inventions, except in a most 
general way. Even the exact dates of important events in 
his life are unknown, and the length of time during which 
he was imprisoned in the Tower is a matter of conjecture. 
That he continued his scientific and mechanical pursuits even 
during the early tumults of the civil war is pretty certain, 
and that some of his inventions were put in operation, at 
Raglan Castle, on a scale of considerable magnitude, seems 
more than probable from the following anecdote related by 
Dr. Bayly : "At the beginning of this Parliament (Nov. 1640) 
there were certain rustics who came into Raglan Castle to 
search for arms, his lordship* being a Papist. The Marquis 
met them at the castle gate, desiring to know whether they 
came to take away his money, seeing they intended to dis- 
arm him. They stated that they made the application merely 
in consequence of his being a recusant. To which he re- 
plied, ' He was a peer of the realm, and no convict recusant, 
therefore the law could not in reason take notice of any such 
things.' Finding some sharp and dubious expressions com- 
ing from the Marquis, they were at last willing to take his 
word ; but he, not willing to part with them on such easy 
terms, had before resolved to return them one fright for an- 
other. With that view he conveyed them up and down the 
castle, until at length he brought them over a high bridge 
that arched over the moat that was between the castle and 
the great tower, wherein the Lord Herbert had newly con- 

* The father of the famous Marquis. 



10 LIFE OF THE MARQUIS OF WORCESTER. 

trived certain water-works, which, when the several engines 
and wheels were to be set a-going, much quantity of water, 
through the hollow conveyances of the aqueducts, was to be 
letdown from the top of the high tower; which, upon the 
first entrance of these wonderful asinegoes, the Marquis had 
given order that these cataracts should begin to fall, which 
made such a fearful and hideous noise, by reason of the hol- 
lowness of the tower, and neighboring echoes of the castle, 
and the waters that were between, and round about, that 
there was such a roaring as if ihe mouth of hell had been 
wide open, and all the devils conjured up, occasioning the 
poor silly men to stand so amazed as if they had been half 
dead ; and yet they saw nothing. At last, as the plot was 
laid, up came a man staring and running, crying out ' Look 
to yourselves my masters, for the lions are got loose? Where- 
upon the searchers tumbled so over one another escaping 
down the stairs, that it was thought one half of them would 
break their necks, never looking behind them until out of 
sight of the castle." 

Troublous times were now approaching. Charles the First 
was in sore need of money, and Lord Herbert and his father 
advanced him large loans from their personal estate. In 
addition to this they raised and sustained a considerable 
body of troops. Up to this time the highest dignity at- 
tained by the family was that of Earl of Worcester. On the 
2nd of November, 1642, Henry, (the father of the famous 
Edward) was created Marquis of Worcester. The civil war 
now raged, and Raglan Castle was garrisoned by troops 



LIFE OF THE MARQUIS OF WORCESTER. I I 

maintained by the Somersets in the interest of the King. 
The scientific and mechanical skill of Lord Herbert, (the fu- 
ture Marquis) were here brought into play, and a powder 
mill was erected on the estate and actively operated for the 
supply of ammunition to the royal troops. 

As a military man, however, Lord Herbert does not seem 
to have achieved much success. His troops were defeated 
by the Parliamentary forces, and his pecuniary losses were so 
enormous that he was made a poor man for the rest of his 
life. 

In 1645 he was sent to Ireland by the King with a commis- 
sion to raise a body of 10,000 Irish troops for service in Eng- 
land to oppose the parliamentary forces. To secure the aid of 
the Catholics in this effort, Lord Herbert, recently created Earl 
of Glamorgan, was empowered to offer the Romish dignita- 
ries the most liberal terms, not only as regarded toleration, 
but in the matter of lands, titles, etc., to be placed in their 
possession. This arrangement was, however, completely up- 
set by certain wholly unlocked for events. The Popish 
Archbishop of Tuam, President of Connaught, and one of 
the Supreme Council at Kilkenny, going into Ulster to visit 
his diocese, and put into execution an order for arrears of 
his Bishopric, granted to him by that Council, met with a 
body of Irish troops marching to besiege Sligo, and joined 
with them. When they came near that town, the garrison 
made a sally on the iyth of October, charged the troops, and 
utterly routed them, killing the Archbishop in the en- 
counter. Amongst the baggage of the Archbishop was 



12 LIFE OF THE MARQUIS OF WORCESTER. 

found an authentic copy, attested and signed by several 
bishops, of the treaty concluded with them by the Earl of 
Glamorgan. The result of this disclosure was that Lord 
Digby charged the Earl with suspicion of high treason, and 
moved that his person be secured. The charge being fully 
substantiated, the Earl was committed to the custody of the 
Constable of Dublin Castle in the condition of a close 
prisoner. After a brief confinement he was liberated on 
bail, but under the condition that he should not leave the 
Kingdom of Ireland. 

Meanwhile Raglan Castle, the family seat and the scene 
of his early studies and experiments, was taken by General 
Fairfax after a prolonged seige. The letters and papers 
were carried off and the castle ordered to be demolished. 
It is probable that in the dispersion and destruction of 
these papers we have lost the records of many of the early 
experiments and inventions made by the Marquis. 

These accumulated misfortunes no doubt hastened the 
death of his father, which occurred in December, 1646. 

Very soon after these events matters were so arranged 
that he was enabled to go to France, where he remained in 
exile for four or five years. That some arrangement look- 
ing to his voluntary exile was made with the government 
is more than probable, as the Marquis was too honorable to 
leave in the lurch his friends, the Marquis of Clanricarde 
and the Earl of Kildare, who were on his bond for ten 
thousand pounds each. 

On the 3oth of January, 1649, Charles the First was exe- 



LIFE OF THE MARQUIS OF WORCESTER. 13 

cuted; the commonwealth was established on the 6th of 
February following, and the Protectorate under Cromwell in 
1654. Meanwhile Charles the Second had escaped to the 
continent and set up a migratory court. Although the 
Marquis was not a constant attendant at this court, he ap- 
pears to have been in communication with them, and in 
1652 he was sent to England for private intelligence as well 
as for supplies. Unfortunately, however, he was recognized, 
made prisoner, and committed to the tower, where he re- 
mained for a period variously estimated at from two to six 
years. During his confinement he wrote the famous book 
known as " A Century of Inventions," which, however, was 
not published until 1663, though it was supposed that sev- 
eral manuscript copies were made and circulated amongst 
his friends. One of these is now in the British Museum, and 
is interesting on account of certain slight variations from 
the printed book. 

In 1660 Charles the Second returned to England and was 
placed upon the throne of his fathers. One would suppose 
that a man who had suffered so much in attestation of his 
loyalty would have been most liberally treated, but we find 
that, although the estates of the Marquis were restored, they 
were heavily encumbered and greatly despoiled. The tim- 
ber had been removed, the buildings were in ruins, and the 
sources of income were but trifling. He therefore took up 
his residence in London, where, in the hopes of retrieving 
his fortune, he devoted himself to the prosecution of his studies 



14 LIFE OF THE MARQUIS OF WORCESTER. 

and the perfecting of his inventions, though it would seem 
without any very marked financial success. 

Four years after the publication of the " Century " on 
the 3rd of April, 1667 he died in London, and on the igth 
of the same month he was buried in the family vault within 
the Parish Church of Raglan. 

Such is a meagre outline of the life of the Marquis of 
Worcester. Those who desire to follow out the details of 
his political relations more closely will find much material 
in the Life by Henry Dircks a crude and ill-digested per- 
formance, which should be called a collection of materials 
for a biography, rather than a biography. 

That the Marquis of Worcester was a keen student and 
an enthusiastic inventor, there can be no doubt. That the 
results which he attained have been greatly over-estimated is 
very certain, but the wonder is that he should have accom- 
plished anything at all when we consider the troublous times 
in which his lot was cast. 

As a man he was loyal, brave and honest, qualities not 
always found in high places in those days. Unfortunately, 
for himself, he was, during a great part of his life, attached 
to the losing side, and when the tide of success turned he 
was too old to secure the favor of such a frivolous and sen- 
sual monarch as Charles the Second. 



INTHODUCTIOlsr. 



If we except those who have taken an active controver- 
sial part in religion or politics there is no man in regard to 
whom such positively opposite opinions have been enter- 
tained, as the Marquis of Worcester. Dircks, in the Dedi- 
cation prefixed to his Life of the Marquis, affirms that it 
would be "impossible to name his compeer either amongst 
the highest nobility or the most eminent scientific celebrities 
of Europe, during the last two centuries." In other words, 
Newton, Davy, Faraday, Watt, Stephenson, and all the other 
stars in the bright galaxy which stretches across the last two 
two hundred years, pale before the effulgence of the fame 
of the Marquis of Worcester ! ! On the other hand Walpole 
speaks of the "Century of Inventions" as "an amazing 
piece of folly," and rates the author as little better than a 
madman ! It is pretty certain that the truth lies between 
these two extremes, for the one is the conclusion of a man 
of trinkets and trifles who never in his life grappled with a 
serious subject and conquered it, and the other is the out- 
come of mere toadyism on the part of a man Avho evidently 
wished to ingratiate himself with certain aristocratic fami- 
lies. 

Unfortunately, for the Marquis, the labors of Mr. Dircks 



1 6 INTRODUCTION. 

have rendered certain the fact tljat to him we owe absolutely 
nothing so for as inventive progress is concerned. He may 
have constructed steam engines more perfect than those 
turned out by the best factories of the present day; he 
may have perfected inventions, which, if now understood, 
would render both telegraph and telephone useless, and his 
"Water-Commanding Engine" may have been not only 
" Semi-omnipotent " but actually omnipotent, and yet it is no 
injustice to him and no ingratitude on our part for us to say 
that we owe him NOTHING, for with all the efforts of Mr. 
Dircks and all the facilities placed at his command, as re- 
gards old papers, records, models, etc., there has not been 
brought to light one scrap of writing, or one fragment of a 
model, that tends to show that the Marquis ever developed a 
successful invention or that he ever carried one to such a de- 
gree of completion as would enable a modern mechanic to 
profit to any extent by his labors. 

It is therefore very obvious that we owe none of our me- 
chanical or inventive progress to him. Whether he actually 
succeeded in perfecting the inventions that he describes, and 
especially, whether or not he was the real inventor of the 
steam engine, are questions which will be attacked by those 
who desire to gratify their antiquarian curiosity, but not by 
those who desire to render to the name of a benefactor the 
homage which gratitude prompts. 

Many of the inventions described by the Marquis are frivo- 
lous and useless. He gives no clue to his ciphers, but it is 
the simplest of all tasks to devise methods which will con- 



INTRODUCTION. *7 

form to all the conditions stated in his book ; the only diffi- 
culty is that in these days the deciphering of cryptographs 
has made such progress that any such ciphers would be use- 
less. A mere tyro in the art would be able to decipher 
them and in a few minutes force them to give up their true 
meaning. 

That many of the alleged inventions described in the 
Century were solved only in the imagination of the Marquis 
can hardly be doubted by any intelligent student. For ex- 
ample, No. 56 is a very perfect description of a common form 
of so-called perpetual motion that is to say, it is one of 
those forms which are almost certain to occur to every active 
mechanical mind that attempts to solve this famous problem. 
We have known it to be invented a dozen times by persons 
whose efforts and ideas were entirely independent of each 
other, and who had never heard of the thing before. We have 
had models of this contrivance brought to us, and so strong 
was the hold that the theoretical idea had taken upon the 
minds of the inventors that although in every case the 
models failed to operate yet this was invariably attributed to 
the mechanical defects and rude workmanship of the model 
and not to any fallacy lurking in the theory. And every edi- 
tor of a popular scientific journal and every person having 
much to do with inventors, will no doubt testify to the same 
experience. 

It is a fact well known to all who are actually brought 
into contact with mechanical progress that the inventive 
world is full of embryo inventions whose maturity is an im- 



1 8 INTRODUCTION. 

possibility. At one time our. Patent Office required models 
of all inventions capable of being so illustrated. As a gen- 
eral rule the office accepted what were called "dummy" 
models that is to say, models that merely showed the form 
and arrangement of the parts without actually working. In 
particular cases the office had the power to demand " work- 
ing " models, but these were not often required. Now every 
patent agent will testify that the percentage of inventions 
which seemed f. asible in drawings and dummy models and 
yet failed in actual practice was very large. And, so plau- 
sible did these schemes seem that the authors would have 
had no hesitation in risking their lives on the results; far less 
would they have hesitated to describe them as " inventions 
which they had tried and perfected." So that we are far 
from impugning the veracity of the Marquis when we say 
that many of these things existed only in his imagination, for 
it must be borne in mind that every inventor is gifted with a 
vivid imagination ; indeed, if defective in this respect, he 
never could be an inventor. 

Those who will carefully study the inventions described in 
the " Century " will be surprised to see how many of them 
have been brought to a degree of perfection of which the 
Marquis could have had no idea. Not only has the 
power of steam been so developed that the claims of the 
Marquis have been far exceeded, but our telegraphs, tele- 
phones, armored ships, land turrets and other contrivances 
throw far in the shade anything ever conceived or named 
by him. But, when we read his wonderful descriptions we 



INTRODUCTION. IQ 

cannot but accord to him a power of vision far in advance of 
his day. He had a marvellous insight into the future, and 
unbounded faith in the possibilities of science and mechanics, 
and the probability is that if he had closely settled down to 
the hard work of thorough investigation, and the prosaic 
study of facts and principles, he would have been the real inven- 
tor of the modern steam engine. But not only did he fall 
upon evil times, his mind was too enthusiastic and flighty for 
such work, and he spread over a " Century " of inventions 
that power which he ought to have confined to one or two. 

Amongst the questions which always occur when the name 
of the Marquis of Worcester is brought forward, are those re- 
lating to the invention of the steam engine. Prof. Robi- 
son and some others broadly claim that he was the inven- 
tor of this modern aid to civilization, Avhile Arago claims the 
like for De Caus, others claim it for Savery, and the friends 
of other inventors make like claims. The thoughtful student 
will see that none of these claims are well founded. The 
development of the Steam Engine was a gradual process, pro- 
ceeding in some cases along distinct and unconnected lines, 
which in every case served to develop some useful princi- 
ple, but which did not always produce a practical result, 
capable of utilization in the modern machine. 

The principal stages of this course of invention seem to 
have been the following : 

1. The discovery of the expansive force of steam. 

2. Its direct application to the production of mechanical 
motion. 



20 INTRODUCTION 

3. Its direct application to the raising of water in closed 
vessels. 

4. Its use in the formation of a vacuum so as to produce 
mechanical motion. 

5. Its application to the direct movement of a piston in 
both directions. 

At every one of these stages various minor improvements 
were made, any one of which would, if not superseded by 
better, have made the fame and fortune of any inventor, but to 
no one inventor do we owe our advancement through more 
than one stage. Let us briefly glance at these several 
stages. 

The expansive power of steam was no doubt discovered 
at a very early period in the history of man's progress. In- 
deed, it is quite certain that it antedates many of our well- 
defined historic periods, such as the bronze and iron ages. 
It was probably discovered as soon as men had constructed 
rude vessels of earthen ware in which they could cook their 
food. The lids of these vessels would often be raised by 
steam ; explosions of pent-up vapor would occur, and even 
in the infancy of the arts, men would be taught to respect 
the tremendous power which now does us such noble ser- 
vice. 

We can easily imagine the consternation of the ancients at 
some of these tremendous manifestations, and we can easily 
suppose that they would be attributed to the working of 
some Genie or Spirit, for all the invisible forces were so re- 
garded by men in early times. Our modern word gas ig 



INTRODUCTION. 21 

nothing but the word ghost in a different form, and it came 
to be applied to invisible airs, because these were supposed 
to be subterranean spirits. So the name of the metal Cobalt 
is merely a transformation of the word Kobold, the name of 
an evil spirit who was supposed to haunt mines, and change 
good metal to worthless alloy. In the hands of the ancient 
priests, steam played an important part in many Pagan 
ceremonies, and therefore we may safely conclude that this 
stage of the discovery of steam as a source of power ante- 
dates all history. 

The same is true of the second stage. In his work en- 
titled" Spiritalia," Hero, of Alexandria, describes three modes 
in which steam might be employed as a mechanical power : 
i, to raise water by its elasticity; 2, to elevate a weight by 
its expansive force, and 3, to produce a rotary motion by its 
reaction in escaping from the side of a tube. The latter 
works on the same principle that operates the well-known 
Barker's water-mill. Hero does not claim these inventions 
as his own, but, as has been well said, " though posterity is 
really not indebted to him for the invention, it is still more 
beholden to him for the bequest of his description, than if 
he had been the inventor and had omitted to describe it." 
The invention of Branca, and also the well known modifica- 
tion of Branca's device, in which a jet of steam is made to 
act directly on the buckets or vanes of a breast-wheel, come 
under this head. 

In the third stage we find steam used in close vessels and 
pressing directly upon the water to be raised. This was a 



2 INTRODUCTION. 

direct step in advance, though in some of Its forms it was 
no doubt invented at a very early period. The crudest 
form of the device is that of which the so-called engine of 
De Caus is an illustration. In this " engine " the entire body 
of water to be raised must first be heated above the boil- / 
ing point an arrangement which is utterly impracticable so \ 
far as any useful mechanical purpose is concerned. This de- 
vice is, however, very old much older than De Caus. 

It would of course soon be found that it was not neces- 
sary to heat the water to be raised ; that steam from a separ- 
ate boiler would be much more economical. This method 
was fully described by Porta in 1601, and is still in use in 
a simple and tolerably efficient form of water-raising engine. 

The fact that when steam is condensed by cold, a 
vacuum is formed, was well known in very ancient times. 
The old steam blowers or Eolipiles were frequently filled by 
utilizing this principle, and it was not a great step from the 
mere raising of water into an Eolipile to the raising of a 
weight by the use of a piston. Pistons for raising water an- 
tedate any recorded form of the steam engine, and their 
adaptation to the production of mechanical movements by 
the pressure of the atmosphere, did not require any great 
stretch of the inventive faculty. 

The fifth stage in which steam was caused to act directly on 
a piston, was the culmination of the invention of the steam en- 
gine. An infinite number of modifications, and of additional 
devices and improvements may have been added, but this was 
the fundamental idea the adoption of which brought success. 



INTRODUCTION. 23 

To which of these stages the inventions of the Marquis be- 
longed we have no means of knowing. There is not a 
scrap of drawing, a fragment of a model, or an intelligible 
description remaining to aid us on this point. True, we 
have many sketches, and so-called restorations, but they are 
all the products of the fancy and the inventive powers of 
biographers and commentators. 

As regards the engine at Vauxhall, it may, for aught we 
know, have been a mere pump. Two very intelligent travellers 
visited the works at times considerably apart, and both speak 
of the use of horses for driving the engines. A steam en- 
gine, worked by horses, is certainly a curious invention. 

Historians have indulged in much speculation as to the 
causes which delayed the invention of the steam engine to so 
late a period. It is acknowledged on all hands that the pro- 
perties and powers of steam were tolerably well understood, 
and all the mechanical elements of a successful engine had 
been invented the crank, the piston, etc. And the 
mechanical skill of the ancients has furnished a subject for 
many a lecturer on the " lost arts." Why then was not the 
steam engine produced ? Simply because it was not needed. 
What would have been the use of a motive power to a peo- 
ple who had no machinery for it to drive ? The Greeks and 
Romans had not even a threshing machine, far less spinning 
machinery, power looms, or rolling mills. All their mechan- 
ical work was done by hand-power, and so long as the 
spinning wheel was turned by women and the shuttle driven 
by men, of what use could a steam engine have been to them ? 



24 INTRODUCTION. 

In the history of the arts., and sciences we find that the 
progress of each depends greatly upon that of the others. 
Astronomy and physiology came to a standstill until the 
science and practice of optics were so improved as to place 
the telescope, the spectroscope and the microscope at their 
command. Since then the progress made in these depart- 
ments has been simply marvellous. In the arts we find that 
every new demand gives rise to new inventions and new dis- 
coveries. As soon as the English mines required power of 
some kind to keep them free from water, pumps suited to 
the purpose were invented. At first these pumps were 
worked by hand, but as soon as greater power became ne- 
cessary new inventions were made and horse-power was ap- 
plied. This enabled the mines to be carried to a greater 
depth, and then a still more powerful motor was needed, and 
as soon as this became apparent the steam engine was in- 
vented. 

In the arts as in daily life, the extent of our wants is the 
measure of our civilization. 



NOTE. 



In the following pages we give a verbatim reprint of the 
Edition of 1663 the only one known to have been pub- 
lished during the life of the Marquis. 

There is in the British Museum (Harleian MS. No. 2428) 
a manuscript copy of the Century. Partington affirms 
that this copy is in the handwriting of the Marquis, 
but such is not the case. It is evidently a mere copy made 
by some one for his own convenience before the work was 
printed. The top of the title page of the MS. copy bears the 
words "from August ye 291!! to Sept. ye 2ist, 1659" This 
is supposed to indicate the time occupied in copying it. 

The MS. copy differs in several places from the printed 
edition. These variations we have given in foot notes, so 
that the reader may have the exact text of both the printed 
and the written copy. 

In the MS. copy, however, No. 88 instead of being a de- 
scription of a Brazen Head, is a description of "A Stamping 
Engine" for coining money. The description is as fol- 
lows: " An engine without ye least noyse, knock or use of 
fyre, to coyne and stamp 100 Ib. in an houre by one man." 



CENTURY 

OF THE 

Names and Scantlings 
OF SUCH 

INVENTIONS, 

As at prefent I can call to mind to 
have tried and perfected, which 
(my former Notes being loft) I 
have, at the inftance of a power- 
ful Friend, endeavoured now in 
the Year 1655, to fet thefe 
down in fuch a way as may fuiii- 
ciently inftrud me to put any of 
them in pra&ice. 

Artis & Naturae proles. 

LONDON: 
Printed by J. Grifmond\\\ the year 1663. 



TO THE 

KINGS 

Most Excellent MAJESTY. 



SIR, 

SCIRE, meum nihil est, nisi me scire lioc sciat alter, 
saith tJie S'oet, and I most justly in order to Your Majesty, 
whose satisfaction is my happiness, and ivhom to seii'e is my 
ouely aime, placing therein my Summum bonuni in this world: 
Be therefore pleased to cast Your gracious Eye over this Sum- 
mary Collection, and then to pick and choose. I confess, I 
made it but jor the superficial satisfaction of a friends curi- 
osity, according as it is set downe ; and if it might now serve 
to give aime to Your Majesty how to make use of my poor 
Endeavours, it would cimune my thoughts, who am neitJier 
covetous nor ambitious, but of describing Your Majesties favour 
upon my own cost and charges ; yet, according to the old 
English Proverb, It is a poor Dog not worth whistleing 
after. Let but Your Majesty approve, and I will effectually 
perform 10 the height of my Undertaking : Vouchsafe but to 
command, and with my Life and Fot tune I shall chcarfully 
obey, and maugre envy, ignorance and malice, ever appear 
YOUR MAJESTY'S 

Passionately-devoted, or 
otherwise dis-interested 
Subject and Servant, 

WORCESTER. 



To the Right Honourable 
THE LORDS SPIRITUAL AND TEMPORAL; 

And to the KNIGHTS, CITIZENS, AND BURGESSES of the Hon- 
ourable House of Commons ; NOW assembled in Parliament. 



My Lords and Gentlemen, 

Be not startled if I address to all, and every of you, this 
Century of Summary Heads of wonderful things, even after 
the Dedication of them to His most Excellent Majesty, since 
it is with His most gracious and particular consent, as well 
as indeed no wayes derogating from my duty to His Sacred 
Self, but rather in further order unto it, since your Lordships, 
who are his great Council, and you, Gentlemen, His whole 
Kingdom's Representatives (most worthily welcome unto 
Him,) may fitly receive into your wise and serious considera- 
tions what doth or may publickly concern both His Majesty 
and His tenderly-beloved People. 

Pardon me if I say (my Lords and Gentlemen) that it is 
joyntly your parts to digest to His hand these ensuing par- 
ticulars, fitting them to His palate, and ordering how to re- 
duce them into practice in a way useful and beneficial both 
to His Majesty and His Kingdom. 

Neither do I esteem it less proper for me to present them 
to you, in order to His Majesty's service than it is to give 



2 CENTURY OF INVENTIONS. 

into the hands of a faithful aud provident Steward whatso- 
ever dainties and provisions are intended for the Master's 
diet; the knowing and faithful Steward being best able to 
make use thereof to his Master's contentment and greatest 
profit, keeping for the morrow what ever should be over- 
plus or needless for the present day, or at least, to save 
something else in lieu thereof. In a word (my Lords and 
Gentlemen), I humbly conceive this Simile not improper, 
since you are His Majesty's provident Stewards, into whose 
hands I commit my self with all properties fit to obey you, 
that is to say, with a heart harbouring no ambition, but an 
endless aim to serve my King and Countrey : and if my en- 
deavors prove effectual (as I am confident they will), his 
Majesty shall not onely become rich, but his people likewise, 
as Treasurers unto Him; and His Pierless Majesty, our 
King, shall become both belov'd at home and fear'd abroad, 
deeming the riches of a king to consist in the plenty enjoyed 
by His People. 

And the way to render Him to be feared abroad is, to 
content his People at home, who then, with heart and 
hand, are ready to assist him; and whatsoever God blesseth 
me with to contribute towards the increase of His Revenues 
in any considerable way, I desire it may be employed to the 
use of His People; that is, for the taking off such Taxes or 
Burthens from them as they chiefly groane under, and by a 
Temporary necessity onely imposed upon them, which being 
thus supplied will certainly best content the King and satisfie 
His People, which I dare say is the continual Tend of all 



CENTURY OF INVENTIONS. 3$ 

your indefatigable pains, and the perfect demonstrations of 
your Zele to His Majesty, and an evidence that the King- 
doms Trust is justly and deservedly reposed in you. And if 
ever Parliament acquitted themselves thereof, it is this of 
yours, composed ot most deserving and qualified Persons 
qualified, I say, with your affection to your Prince, and with 
a tenderness to His People; with a bountiful heart towards 
Him, yet a frugality in their behalfs. 

Go on, therefore, chearfully (my Lords and Gentlemen), 
and not onely our gracious King, but the King of Kings 
will reward you, the Prayers of the People will attend 
you, and His Majesty will, with thankful arms, embrace 
you. And be pleased to make use of me and my en- 
deavors to enrich them, not my self; such being my 
onely request unto you, spare me not in what your Wisdoms 
shall find me useful, who do esteem myself not onely by the 
Act of the Water-commanding Engine (which so chearfully 
you have past), sufficiently rewarded, but likewise with cour- 
age enabled to do ten times more for the future; and my 
Debts being paid, and a competency to live according to my 
Birth and Quality setled, the rest shall I dedicate to the 
service of our King and Countrey by your disposals: and es- 
teem me not the more or rather any more, by what is past, 
but what 's to come; professing really, from my heart, that 
my Intentions are to outgo the six or seven hundred thou- 
sand pounds already sacrificed, if countenanced and en- 
couraged by you, ingenuously confessing that the melancholy 
which hath lately seized me, (the cause whereof none of 



34 CENTURY OF INVENTIONS. 

you but may easily guess,) bath, I dare say, retarded more 
advantages to the public service than modesty will permit 
me to utter: And now revived by your promising favors, I 
shall infallibly be enabled thereunto in the Experiments extant, 
and comprised under these heads practicable with my direc- 
tions by the unparall'd workman, both for trust and skill, Cas- 
per Kaltoffs hand, who has been these five-and-thirty years as 
in a school, under me imployed, and still at my disposal, in a 
place by my great expences made fit for publick service, 
yet lately like to be taken from me, and consequently from 
the service of King and Kingdom, without the least re- 
gard of above ten thousand pounds expended by me, and 
through my Zele to the Common good ; my Zele, I say, a 
field large enough for you (my Lords and Gentlemen) to 
work upon. 

The Treasures buried under these heads, both for War, 
Peace, and Pleasure, being inexhaustible ; I beseech you 
pardon me if I say so; it seems a Vanity, but compre- 
hends a Truth ; since no good Spring but becomes the more 
plentiful by how much more it is drawn, and the Spinner to 
weave his webb is never stinted but further inforc'd. 

The more then that you shall be pleased to make use of my 
Inventions, the more Inventive shall you ever find me; one 
Invention begetting still another, and more and more impro- 
ving my ability to serve my King and you ; and as to my 
heartiness therein, there needs no addition, nor to my readi- 
ness a spur. And therefore (my Lords and Gentlemen) be 
pleased to begin, and desisist not from commanding me till I 



CENTURY OP INVENTIONS. 35 

flag in my obedience and endeavors to serve my King and 
Country. 

For certainly you'lfind me breathless first Vexpire, 
Before my hands grow voeary, or my legs do tire. 

Yet, abstracting from any Interest of my own, but as a 
Fellow-Subject and Compatriot, will I ever labor in the Vine- 
yard, most heartily and readily obeying the least summons 
from you, by putting faithfully in execution what your Judg- 
ments shall, think fit to pitch upon amongst this Century of 
Experiences, perhaps dearly purchased by me, but now 
frankly and gratis offered to you. Since my heart (me- 
thinks) cannot be satisfied in serving my King and Country, 
if it should cost them anything; As I confess, when I had 
the honor to be neare so obliging a Master as His late 
Majesty, of happy memory, who never refused me his Ear to 
any reasonable motion: And as for unreasonable ones, or 
such as were not fitting for him to grant, I would rather to 
have dyed a thousand deaths than ever to have made any 
one unto him. 

Yet whatever I was so happy as to obtain for any deserving 
Person, my Pains, Breath and Interest employed therein, 
satisfied me not, unless I likewise satisfied the Fees ; but that 
was in my Golden Age. 

And even now, though my ability and means are short- 
ened, the world knows why my heart remains still the 
same ; and be you pleased, my Lords and Gentlemen, to 
rest most assured, that the very complacency that I shall 



36 CENTURY OF INVENTIONS. 

take in the executing your 'Commands shall be unto me a 
sufficient and an abundantly-satisfactory reward. 

Vouchsafe therefore to dispose freely of me, and what- 
ever lieth in my power to perform; first, in order to His 
Majesty's service; secondly, for the good and advantage of 
the Kingdom ; thirdly, to all your satisfactions, for particular 
profit and pleasure to your individual selves, professing that 
in all and eaeh of the three respects, I will ever demean my 
self as it best becomes, 

My Lords and Gentlemen, 
Your most passionately -bent Fellow -Subject in 
His Majesty's service, Compatriot for the 
publick good and advantage, and a most 
humble servant to all and every of you. 

WORCESTER. 



A CENTURY 

OF THE 

Names and Scantlings of 

Inventions by me already 
practised. 



i. Several sorts of Seals, some shewing by scrues, others 
by gages fastening or unfastening all the marks at once ; 
others by additional points and imaginary places, propor- 
tionable to ordinary Escocheons 1 and Seals at Arms, each 
way palpably and punctually setting down (yet private from 
all others but the Owner and by his assent) the day of the 
Moneth, the day of the Week, the Moneth of the Year, the 
Year of our Lord, the names of the Witnesses, and the indi- 
vidual place where any thing was sealed, though in ten 
thousand several places, together with the very number of 
lines contained in a Contract, whereby falsification may be 
discovered and manifestly proved, being upon good grounds 
suspected. 

Upon any of these Seals a man may keep Accompts of 

i Escucheons. 



38 CENTURY OP INVENTIONS. 

Receipts and disbursements, from one Farthing to an hun- 
dred millions, punctually shewing each pound, shilling, peny, 
or farthing. 

By these seals, likewise, any Letter, though written but in 
English, may be read and understood in eight several lan- 
guages, and in English itself to clean contrary and different 
sense, unknown to any but ihe Correspondent, and not to 
be read or 1 understood by him neither, if opened before it ar- 
rive unto him; so that neither Threats nor hopes of Re- 
ward can make him reveal the secret, the Letter having 
been intercepted and first opened by the Enemy. 

2. How ten thousand Persons may use these seals to all 
and every of the purposes aforesaid, and keq) their 
secrets 2 from any but whom they please. 

3. A Cypher and Character so contrived, that one line, 
without returns and 3 circumflexes, stands for each and every 
of the 24. Letters ; and as ready to be made for the one letter 
as the other. 

4. This invention refined, and so abbreviated that a point 
onely sheweth distinctly and significantly any of the 24. 
letters ; and these very points to be made with two pens, 
so that no time will be lost, but as one finger riseth 
the other may make the following letter, never clogging 
the memory with several figures for words and com- 

1 nor to be. 

2 secrets private. 
or / 



CENTURY OF INVENTIONS. 39 

bination of letters, which with ease, and void of con- 
fusion, are thus speedily and punctually, letter for letter, 
set down by naked and not multiplied points. And nothing 
can be less than a point, the Mathematical definition of 2 be- 
ing, Cujus pars nulla. And of a motion no swifter imagin- 
able then 3 Semiquavers or Releshes, yet applicable to this 
manner of writing. 

5. A way, by a Circular motion, either along a Rule or 
Ring-wise, to vary any Alphabet, even this of Points, so that 
the self-same Point, individually placed, without the least ad- 
ditional mark or variation of place, shall stand for all the 24. 
letters, and not for the same letter twice in ten sheets writ- 
ing; yet as easily and certainly read and known as if it stood 
but for one and the self-same letter constantly signified. 

6. How at a Window, far as Eye can discover 4 black 
from white, a man may hold discourse with his Correspon- 
dent without noise made or notice taken ; being, according 
to occasion given and means afforded, Ex re nata, and no 
need of Provision beforehand ; though much better if fore- 
seen, and means prepared for it, and a premeditated course 
taken by mutual consent of parties. 

7. A way to do it by night as well as by day, though as 
dark as Pitch is black. 

1 combinations. 

2 of it. 

than what expresseth even. 
4 discern. 



4 CENTURY OF INVENTIONS. 

8. A way how to level aud shoot Cannon by night as 
well as by day, and as directly ; without a platform or meas- 
ures taken by day, yet by a plain and infallible rule. 

9. An Engine, portable in one's Pocket, which may be 
carried and fastened on the inside 1 of the greatest Ship, 
Tanquam aliud age/is, and at any appointed minute, though 
a week after, either of day or night, it shall irrecoverably 
sink that Ship. 

10. A way from a mile off to dive and fasten a like Engine 
to any Ship, so as it may punctually work the same effect 
either for time or execution. 

11. How to prevent and safeguard any Ship from such an 
attempt by day or night. 

12. A way to make a Ship not possible to be sunk, 
though shot an hundred times betwixt wind and water by 
Cannon, and should lose a whole Plank, yet in half an hours 
time, should be made as fit to sail as before. 

13. How to make such false Decks, as in a moment 
should kill and take prisoners as many as should board the 
Ship, without blowing the Decks up or destroying them, 
from being reducible, and in a quarrer of an hours time 
should recover their former shape, and to be made fit for 
any imployment without discovering the secret. 

14. How to bring a force to weigh up an Anchor, or to 
do any forcible exploit, in the narrowest or 2 lowest room in 

ithe side. 
*and -for or. 



CENTURY OE INVENTIONS. 41 

any Ship, where few hands shall do the work of many; and 
many hands applicable to the same force, some standing, 
others sitting, and 1 by virtue of their several helps, a great 
force augmented in little room, as effectual as if there were 
sufficient space to go about with an Axle-tree, and work 
far from the Centre. 

15. A way 2 how to make a Boat work it self against 
Wind and Tide, yea both without the help o( man or 
beast; yet 3 so that the Wind or Tide, though directly 
opposite, shall force the Ship or Boat against itself," and 
in no point of the Compass, but it shall be as effectual as 
if the wind were in the Pupp, or the stream actually with 
the course it is to steer, according to which the Oars shall 
row, and necessary motions work and move towards the 
desired Port or point of the Compass. 

1 6. How to make a Sea-castle or Fortification Cannon 
proof, and capable of a thousand men, yet sailable at plea- 
sure to defend a passage; or, in and hour's time, to divide 
itself into three Ships, as fit and trimmed to sail as before : 
And even whilest it is a Fort or Castle, they shall be unani- 
mously steered, and effectually be driven by an indifferent 
strong wind. 

17. How to make upon the TJiames a rioting Garden of 

iand yet. 

2 a way omitted. 

but /or yet. 



42 CENTURY OF INVENTIONS. 

pleasure, with Trees, Flowers, Banquetting-Houses, and 
Fountains, Stews for all kinds of fishes, a reserve for Snow 
to keep Wine in, delicate Bathing places, and the like; with 
musick made with 1 Mills, and all in the middest of the stream 
where it is most rapid. 

18. An Artificial Fountain, to be turned like an Hour- 
glass, by a child in the twinkling of an eye; it 2 holding a 
great quantity of water, and of force sufficient to make snow, 
ice, and thunder, with a 3 chirping and singing of birds, and 
shewing of several shapes and effects usual to Fountains of 
pleasure. 

16. A little engine within a Coach, whereby a child may 
stop it, and secure all persons within it, and the Coachman 
himself, though the horses be never so unruly 4 in a full 
career; a child being sufficiently capable to loosen them in 
what posture soever they should have put themselves, turn- 
ing never so short, for a child can do it in the twinkling of 
an eye. 

20. How to bring up water Balance-wise, so that as 
little weight or force as will turn a Balance will be onely 
needful, more then the weight of the water within the 
Buckets, which counterpoised, 5 empty themselves one into 

> by for with. 

i jet for it. 

the /or a. 

and running. 

* counterpoise, and empty. 



CENTURY OF INVENTIONS. 43 

the other, the uppermost yielding its water, (how great a 
quantity soever it holds), at the self-same time the lower-most 
taketh it in, though it be an hundred fathom high. 

21. How to raise water constantly with two Buckets onely 
day and night, without any other force then its own motion, 
using not so much as any force, wheel or sucker, nor more 
pulleys than one on which the cord or chain rolleth, with a 
bucket fastened at eacli end. This I confess 1 I have seen 
and learned 2 of the great Mathematician Claudius 3 his 
studies at Rome, he having made a Present thereof unto a 
Cardinal ; and I desire not to own any other mens* inven- 
tions, but if I set down any, to nominate likewise the inven- 
tor. 

22. To make a River in a Garden to ebbe and flow con- 
stantly, though twenty foot over, with a childs force, in some 
private room or place out of sight and a competent distance 
from it. 

23. To set a Clock in 5 a Castle, the water filling the 6 
Trenches about it 7 ; it shall shew by ebbing and flowing, the 
Hours, Minutes, and Seconds and all the comprehensible 

1 confess to have. 

2 in the great Mathematician's study, Clauius at Borne. 
Clauius. 



s as within a. 

s and the. 

7 about it shall show the hours, minutes, and seconds by ebbing. 



44 CENTURY OF INVENTIONS. 

motions of the Heavens and Counterlibation 1 of the Earth 
according to Copernicus. 

24. How to increase the strength of a Spring to such a 
height as to shoot Bumbasses and Bullets of an hundred 
pound weight a Steeple height, and a quarter of a mile off 
and more, Stone-bow-wise; admirable for Fire-works, and 
astonishing of besieged Cities, when, without warning given 
by noise, they find themselves so forcibly and dangerously 
surprised. 

25. How to make a Weight that cannot take up an hun- 
dred pound and yet shall take up two hundred pound, 
and 2 at the self-same distance from the Centre; and so, pro- 
portionally, to millions of pounds. 

26. To raise weight as 3 well and as forcibly with the draw- 
ing back of the Lever, as with the thrusting it 4 forwards ; and 
by that means to lose no time in motion or strength. This I 
saw in the Arcenal at Venice? 

27. A way to remove to and fro huge weights with 
a most inconsiderable strength from place to place. 
For example, Ten Tunne with ten pounds, and less; the 

i counterlibration. 

sand omitted. 

* so for as. 

<of it. 

sat Venice in the Arsenal. 



CENTURY OF INVENTIONS. 4$ 

the said ten pounds not to fall lower than it makes the ten 
Tunne to advance or retreat upon a Level. 

28. A Bridge, portable in 1 a Cart with six horses, which 
in a few hours time may be placed over a river half a mile 
broad, whereon with much expedition, may* be transported 
Horse, Foot and Cannon. 

29. A portable Fortification able to contain five hundred 
fighting men, and yet 3 in six hours time, may 4 be set up 
and made Cannon-proof, upon the side of a River or Pass, 
with Cannon mounted upon it, and as complete as a regular 
Fortification, with Half-moons and Counterscarps. 

30. A way in one nights time to raise a Bulwork twenty or 
thirty foot high, Cannon-proof, and Cannon mounted upon 
it, with men to over-look, command and batter a Towne; for 
though it contain but four Pieces, they shall be able to dis- 
charge two hundred Bullets each hour. 

31. A way how safely and speedily to make an approach 
to a Castle or Town-wall, and over the very Ditch at Noon- 
day. 

32. How to compose an universal Character methodical 
and easie to be written, yet intelligible in any Language : so 
that if an English-man write it in English, a French-man, 5 Ita- 

i upon. 

there maybe, 
yet omitted. 
* able to be. 
6. man omitted. 



46 CENTURY OF INVENTIONS. 

Han, Spaniard, Irish, 1 Welsh, being Scholars ; yea Grecian or 
Hebritian, shall as perfectly undertand it in their owne 
Tongue as if they were perfect English, distinguishing the 
Verbs from the Nouns, the Numbers, Tenses, and Cases, as 
properly expressed in their own Language as it was written in 
English. 

33. To write with a Needle and Thred, white, or any color 
upon- white or 2 any other 3 color, so that one stitch shall sig- 
nificantly shew any letter, and as readily and as easily shew 
the one letter as the other, and fit for any Language. 

34. To write by a knotted Silk string, so that every knot 
shall signifie any letter with Comma, Full point, or Inter- 
rogation, and as legible as with Pen and Ink upon white 
paper. 

35. The like, by the fringe of Gloves. 

36. By stringing of Bracelets. 

37. By Pinck'd Gloves. 

38. By holes in the bottom of a Sieve. 

39. By a Lattin, or Plate Lanthorn.* 

40. By the Smell. 

41. By the Taste. 

42. By the Touch. 

i Irish and. 

or upon. 

other omitted. 

< plate candlestick Lanthorn, 



CENTURY OF INVENTIONS. 47 

By these three Senses as perfectly distinctly and- uncon- 
fusedly, yea as readily as by the sight. 

43. How to vary each of these, so that ten thousand may 
know tliem, and' yet 1 keep the understanding part from any 
but their Correspondent. 

44. To make a Key of a Chamber door, which to your 
sight hath its Wards and Rose-pipe but Paper-thick, and yet 
at pleasure in a minute of an hour, shall become a perfect 
Pistol, capable to shoot through a Brest-plate commonly of 
Carabine-proof, with Prime, Powder and Firelock, undis- 
coverable in a strangers hand. 

45. How to light a Fire and a Candle at what hour of the 
night one awaketh, without rising or putting ones hand out 
of the bed. And the same thing becomes* a serviceable 
Pistol at pleasure; yet by a stranger, not knowing the secret, 
seemeth but a dexterous Tinder-box. 

46. How to make an artificial Bird to fly which way and 
as long as one pleaseth, by or against the wind, sometimes 
chirping, other times hovering, still tending the way it is de- 
signed for. 

47. To make a Ball of any metal, which thrown into a 
Pool or Pail of water shall presently rise from the bottom, 
and constantly shew by the superficies of the water the hour 
of the day or night, never rising more out of the water then 
just to the minute it sheweth of each quarter of the hour; 

1 yet omitted. 

2 becomes to be. 



48 CENTURY OF INVENTIONS. 

and if by force kept under water, yet the time is not lost, but 
recovered as soon as it is permitted to rise to the superficies of 
the water. 

48. A scrued Ascent, instead of Stairs, with fit landing 
places to the best Chambers of each Story, with Back-stairs 
within the Noell of it, convenient for servants to pass up and 
down to the inward Rooms of them, unseen and private. 

49. A portable Engine, in way of a Tobacco-tongs, 
whereby a man may get over a wall, or get up again being 
come down, finding the coast proving 1 unsecure unto him. 

50. A complete light portable Ladder, which taken out 
of ones Pocket, may be by himself fastened an hundred foot 
high to get up by from the ground. 

51. A Rule of Gradation, which with ease and method re- 
duceth all things to a private correspondence, most useful for 
secret Intelligence. 

51. How to signifie words and a perfect Discourse, 
by 2 jangling of 3 Bells of any Parish-Church, or by any 
Musical Instrument within hearing, in a seeming way of 
tuning it ; or of an unskilful beginner. 

53. A way how to make hollow and cover a Water-scrue, 
as big and long as one pleaseth, in an easie and cheap way. 

54. How to make a Water-scrue tite, and yet transparent, 
and free from breaking ; but so clear, that one may palpably 

i proveth. 
by the. 
of the. 



CENTURY OF INVENTIONS. 49 

see the water or any heavy thing how and why it is mounted 
by turning. 

55. A double Water-scrue, the innermost to mount the 
water, and the outermost for it to descend more in number 
of threds, and consequently in quantity of water, though 
much shorter than the innermost scrue, by which the water 
ascendeth, a most extraordinary help for the turning of the 
scrue to make the water rise. 

56. To provide and make that all the Weights of the de- 
scending side of a Wheel shall be perpetually further from 
the Centre then those of the mounting side, and yet equal in 
number and heft to 1 the one side as the other. A most in- 
credible thing, if not seen, but tried before the late King (of 
blessed memory) 2 in the Tower, by my directions, two Ex- 
traordinary Embassadors accompanying His Majesty, and 
the Duke of Richmond and Duke Hamilton, with 3 most 4 of 
the Court attending Him. The Wheel was 14. foot over, 
and 40. Weights of 50. pounds apiece. Sir William Bal- 
fotr? then Lieutenant of the Tower? can justifie it, with 
several others. They all saw, that no sooner these great 

1 of /or to. 

2 of happy and glorious. 

3 and /or with. 
* most part. 

5 Belford. 

s and yet livelng, can. 



50 CENTURY OP INVENTIONS. 

Weights passed the Diameter-line of the lower 1 side, but they 
hung a foot further from the Centre, nor no sooner passed 
the Diameter-line of the upper* side, but they hung a foot 
nearer. Be pleased to judge the consequence. 

57. An ebbing and flowing Water-work in two Vessels, 
into either of which the water standing at a level, if a Globe 
be cast in, instead of rising it presently ebbeth, and so re- 
maineth untill a like Globe be cast into the other Vessel, 
which the water is no sooner sensible of, but that 8 Vessel 
presently ebbeth, and the other floweth, and so continueth 
ebbing and flowing untill one or both of 4 the Globes be 
taken out, working some little effect besides its own motion, 
without the help of any man within sight or hearing : But if 
either of the Globes be taken out, with ever so swift or easie 
a motion, at the very instant the ebbing and flowing ceaseth ; 
for if during the* ebbing you take out the Globe, the water 
of that Vessel presently returneth to flow, and never ebbeth 
after, untill 6 the Globe be returned into it, and then the mo- 
tion beginneth as before. 

58. How to make a Pistol to discharge a dozen times with 

i upper. 

a lower. 

the 

4 of omitted. 

that /or the. 

unless /or untill. 



CfcNTURY OF INVENTIONS. 51 

one loading, and without so much as once new priming 
requisite, or to change it out of one hand into the other, or 
stop ones horse. 

59. Another way as fast and 1 effectual, but more proper 
for Carabines. 

60. A way with a Flask appropriated unto it, which will 
furnish either Pistol or Carabine with a dozen Charges in 
three minutes time, to do the whole execution of a 
dozen 2 shots, as soon as one pleaseth, proportionably. 

61. A third way, and 3 particular for Musquets, without 
taking them from their Rests to charge or prime, to a like 
execution, and as fast as the Flask, the Musquet containing 
but one Charge at a time. 

62. A way for a Harquebuss, a Crock, or Ship-musquet, 
six upon a carriage, shooting with such expedition, as 4 with- 
out danger one may charge, level, and discharge 5 them sixty 
times in a minute of an hour, two or three together. 

63. A sixth way, 6 most excellent for Sakers, Hiffering from 
the other, yet as swift. 

64. A seventh, tried and approved before the late King 

land as 
* of 12. 

sand omitted. 
< as that. 

5 level and discharge omitted. 

6 way omitted. 



52 INTRODUCTION. 

(of ever blessed memory) and an hundred Lords and Com- 
mons, in a Cannon of 8. inches half quarter, to shoot bullets 
ot 64. pounds weight, and 24. pounds of pouder, twenty 
times in six minutes ; so clear from danger, that after all were 
discharged, a Pound of Butter did not melt, being laid upon 
the Cannon-britch, nor the green Oile discoloured that was 
first anointed 1 and used between the Barrel thereof, and the 
Engine, having never in it nor within six foot but one 
charge at a time. 

65. A way that one man in the Cabin may govern 
the 2 whole side of Ship-musquets, to the number (if need re- 
quire) of 2. or 3000. shots. 

66. A way that against 3 several Advenues to a Fort or 
Castle, one man may charge fifty Cannons playing, and 
stopping when he pleaseth, though out of sight of the Can- 
non. 

67. A rare way, likewise, for musquetoons fastened to the 
Pummel of the Saddle, so that a Common Trooper cannot 
misse to charge them with twenty or thirty bullets at a time, 
even in full career. 

When first I gave my thoughts to make Guns shoot often, I 
thought there had been but one only exquisite way inventible, 
yet by several trials and much charge, I have perfectly tried all 
these. 

Ut and. 
*a /or the. 
s against the. 



CENTURY OE INVENTIONS. 53 

68. Aii admirable and most forcible way to drive up water 
by 1 fire, not by drawing or sucking it upwards, for that must 
be as the philosopher calleth it, Intrc? sphceram activitatis, 
which is but at such a distance. But this way hath no 
Bounder, if the Vessels be strong enough ; for I have taken 
a piece of a whole Cannon, whereof the end was burst, and 
filled it three quarters full of water, 3 stopping and scruing 
up the* broken end; as also the Touch-hole; and making a 
constant fire under it, within 24. hours it burst and made a 
great crack : So that having a way 5 to make my Vessels, so 
that they are strengthened by the force within them, and the 
one to fill after the other. I have seen the water run 6 like a 
constant Fountaine-stream, 40. foot high ; one Vessel of water 
rarified by fire, driveth up 40.' of cold water. And a man 
that tends the work is but to turn two Cocks, that one Vessel 
of water being consumed, another begins to force and 8 refill 
with cold water, and so successively, the fire being tended 
and kept constant, which the self-same Person may likewise 

i with ./or by. 

infra. 

3 of water omitted. 

4 that for the. 
s found a way. 
e to run. 

i driving 40. of. 
and that to re-fill. 



54 CENTURY OF INVENTIONS. 

abundantly perform in the, interim between the necessity 
of 1 turning the said Cocks. 

69. A way how a little triangle 2 scrued Key, not weighing 
a Shilling 3 , shall be capable and strong enough to bolt 
and unbolt, round about a great Chest, an hundred Bolts 
through fifty Staples, two in each, with a direct contrary mo- 
tion, and as many more from both sides and ends; and at 
the self-same time shall fasten it to a place, beyond a mans 
natural strength to take it away : and in one and the same 
turn both locketh and openeth it. 

70. A Key with a Rose-turning pipe, and two Roses 
pierced through endwise the Bit thereof, 4 with several hand- 
somly-contriv'd Wards, which may likewise do the same 
effects 5 . 

71. A key perfectly square, with a Scrue turning within it 
and more conceited then any of the rest, 6 and no heavier 
than the triangle-scrued Key, and doth the same effects. 

72. An Escocheon 7 to be placed before any of these 
Locks, with these properties: 

1 necessity of omitted. 

2 triangle and. 

a not weighing a shilling omitted. 

* together for thereof. 

B effect. 

6 other /or rest 

'Schuchion. 



CENTURY OF INVENTIONS. 55 

1. The owner (though a woman) may with her delicate 
hand, vary the wayes of coming to open the Lock ten 
millions of times, beyond the knowledge of the Smith that 
made it, or of me who invented it. 

2. If a stranger open it, it setteth an Alarm a-going, 
which the stranger cannot stop from running out; and be- 
sides, though none should be within hearing, yet it catcheth 
his hand as a Trap doth a Fox; and though far from maim- 
ing him, yet it leaveth such a mark behind it, as will discover 
him if suspected; the Escocheon 1 or 2 Lock plainly shewing 
what monies he hath taken out of the Box to a farthing, and 
how many times opened since the owner hath been in it. 3 

73. A transmittible Gallery over any Ditch or Breach in a 
Town-wall, with a Blinde and Parapit Cannon-proof. 

74. A Door, whereof the turning of a Key, with the help 
and motion of the handle, makes the hinges to be of either 
side, and to open either inward or outward, as one is to 
enter or to* go out, or to open in half. 

75. How a Tape or Ribbon-weaver may set down a 
whole discourse, without knowing a letter, or interweaving 
nny thing suspicious of other secret than a new-fashioned 
Ribbon. 

1 Scuchion. 

2 or the. 
at it. 

<to omitted. 



56 CENTURY OF INVENTIONS. 

76. How to write in th.e dark as straight as by day or 
candle-light. 

77. How to make a man to fly ; which I have tried with a 
little Boy of ten years old in a Barn, from one end to the 
other, on a Hay-mow. 

78. A Watch to go constantly, and yet needs no other 
wauling from the first setting on the Cord or Chain, unless 
it be broken, requiring no other care from one then to be 
now and theft consulted with concerning the hour of the 
day or night ; and if it be laid by a week together, it will 
not erre much, but the oftener looked upon the more exact it 
sheweth the time of the day or night. 

76. A way to to lock all the Boxes of a Cabinet, (though 
never so many) at one time, which were by particular Keys 
appropriated to each Lock, opened severally and indepen- 
dent the 1 one of the other, as much as concerned! the open- 
ing of them, and by these* means cannot be left opened un- 
awares. 

80. How to make a Pistol Barrel no flicker then a Shill- 
ing, and yet able to endure a Musquet proof of Powder and 
Bullet. 

8 1. A Combe-conveyance carrying of 3 Letters without 
suspicion, the head being opened with a Needle-scrue draw- 

i the omitted. 
this-./or these, 
a of omitted. 



CENTURY OF INVENTIONS. 57 

ing a Spring towards them 1 , the Comb being made but after 
an usual form carried in ones Pocket. 

82. A Knife Spoon, or Fork in an usual portable Case, 
may have the like conveyances in their handles. 

83. A Rasping-mill, for Harts-horn, whereby a child may 
do the work of half a dozen men, commonly taken up with 
that work. 

84. An Instrument whereby persons 2 ignorant in Arith- 
metic may perfectly observe Numerations 3 and Substrac- 
tions 3 of all Suinmes and Fractions. 

85. A little Ball made in the shape of a Plum or Pear, 
bung* dexterously conveyed or forced into a bodies mouth, 
shall presently shoot forth such and so many Bolts of each 
side and at both ends, as 5 without the owners Key, can 
neither be opened or 6 filed off, being made of tempered 
Steel, and as effectually locked as an Iron Chest. 

86. A chair, made a-la-tnode, and yet a stranger being 
perswaded to set in't, shall have immediately his armes and 
thighs lock'd up beyond his own power to loosen them. 

87. A Brass mould to cast Candles, in which a man may 

ione /or them, 

2 a person. 

s numeration and subtraction. 

* which being. 

s as that 

nor. 



58 CENTURY OF INVENTIONS. 

make 500. dozen in a day, and adde an ingredient to the 
tallow which will make it cheaper, and yet so that the 
Candles shall look whiter and last longer. 

88. l How to make a Brazen or Stone head, in the midst 
of a great Field or Garden, so artificial and natural, that 
though a man speak never so softly, and even whispers into 
the ear thereof, it will presently open its mouth, and re- 
solve the Question in French, Latine, Welsh, Irish or 
English, in good terms uttering it out of his mouth, and then 
shut it untill the next Question be asked. 

89. White Silk, knotted in the fingers 2 of a Pair of white 
Gloves, and so contrived without suspicion, that playing at 
primero, at cards, one may without clogging his memory 
keep reckoning of all Sixes, Sevens and Aces, which he hath 
discarded. 3 

90. A most dexterous Dicing Box, with holes transparent, 
after the usual fashion, with a Device so dexterous, that with 
a knock of it against the Table the four good Dice are 
fastened, and it 1 looseneth four false Dice made fit for his 
purpose. 

91. An artificial Horse, with Saddle and Caparizons fit 

iAn engine without ye least noyse, knock, or use of fyre, to coyne 
and stamp 100. Ib. in an houre by one man. 

* finger. 

without foul play. 

<it omitted. 



CENTURY OF INVENTIONS. 59 

for running at 1 the ring, on which a man being mounted, 
with his Lance in his hand, he can at pleasure make him start, 
and swiftly to run his career, using the decent posture 2 with 
ban grace, may take the Ring as handsomly and running as 
swiftly as if he rode upon a Barbe. 

92. A scrue, made like a Water-scrue, but the bottom 
made of Iron-plate Spade wise, which at the side of a Boat, 
emptieth the mud of a Pond, or raiseth Gravel. 

93. An Engine whereby one man may take out of the water 
a Ship of 500. Tun, so that it may be calked, trimmed and 
repaired, without need of the usual way of stocks, and as 
easily let it down again. 

94. A little Engine portable in ones Pocket, which 
placed to any door, without any noise, but one crack, 
openeth any door or gate. 

95. A double Cross-bow, neate, handsome, and strong, to 
shoot two Arrows, either together, or one after the other, so 
immediately, that a Deer cannot run two steps, but, if he 
miss 3 of one Arrow, he may be reach'd with the other, 
whether the Deer run forward, sideward, or start backward. 

96. A way to make a Sea-bank so firm and Geometrically- 
strong, that a stream can have no power over it ; excellent, 
likewise, to save the Pillar of a Bridge, being far cheaper 
and stronger then Stone- walls. 

i at omitted. 
* postures. 
3 be missed, 



60 . CENTURY OF INVENTIONS. 

97. An Instrument whereby an ignorant person may take 
any thing in Perspective, as justly, and more than the skil- 
fullest Painter can do by his eye. 

98. An Engine, so contrived, that working the Priinum 
mobile forward or backward, upward or downward, 1 circu- 
larly or corner-wise, to and fro, streight, upright or down- 
right, yet the pretended Operation continueth, and ad- 
vanceth none of the motions above-mentioned, hindering, 
much less stopping, the other; but unanimously, and with 
harmony agreeing they all augment and contribute strength 
unto the intended work and operation : and, therefore, I call 
this a Semi-omnipotent Engine, and do intend that a Model 
thereof be buried with me. 

99. How to make one pound weight to raise an hundred 
as high as one pound falleth, and yet the hundred pound 
descending doth 2 what" nothing less than one hundred. pound 
can effect. 

100. Upon so potent a help as these two last-mentioned 
Inventions a Water-work is, by many years experience 3 and 
labour, so advantageously by me 1 contrived, that a Child's 
force bringeth up an hundred foot high an incredible quan- 



i forwards or backwards, upwards or dowijwards. 

to do. 

expences /or experience. 

< by me omitted. 



CENTURY OE INVENTIONS. 6 1 

tity of water, even two foot Diameter, so naturally, that the 
work will not be heard even into the next Room ; and with 
so great ease and Geometrical Symmetry, that though it work 
day and night from one end of the year to the other, it will 
not require forty shillings reparation to the whole Engine, nor 
hinder ones day-work 1 . And I may boldly call it The most stu- 
pendious work in the whole world : not onely with little charge, 
to drein all sorts of Mines, and furnish Cities with water, though 
never so high seated, as well to keep them sweet, running 
through several streets, and so performing the work of Scav- 
engers, as well as furnishing the inhabitants with sufficient 
water for their private occasions; but likewise supplying 
rivers with sufficient to maintaine and make them portable 2 
from Towne to Tovvne, and for the bettering of Lands all the 
way it runs; with many more advantageous, and yet greater 
effects of Profit, Admiration, and Consequence. So that de- 
servedly I deem this Invention to crown my Labors, to re- 
ward my Expences, and make my Thoughts acquiesce in way 
of further Inventions : This making up the whole Century, 
and preventing any further trouble to the Reader for the 
present, meaning to leave to Posterity a Book, wherein un- 
der each of these Heads the means to put in execution and 
visible trial all and every of these Inventions, with the shape 



i The sentence beginning " so naturally " and ending " ones day- 
work," is not found in the MS. copy. 

mafce navigable /or make them portable. 



62 CENTURY OF INVENTIONS. 

and form of all things belonging to them, shall be Printed by 
Brass-plates. 

In Bonum Publicum, 
et 

Ad Majorem DEI Gloriam. 1 



The following passage, added as a postscript to the MS., 
does not appear in the edition of 1663 : 

i " Besydes many omitted, and some of three sorts willingly not set 
downe, as not fitt to be divulged, least ill use may bee made thereof; 
butt to shew that such things are also within my knowledge, I will here 
in myne own cypher set down one of each, not to be concealed when 
duty and affection obligeth me." 



CENTURY OF INVENTIONS. 63 



THE CONTENTS. 1 



No. 

Seals abundantly significant, ..... i 

Private and particular to each owner, ... 2 

An one-line cypher, 3 

Reduced to a point, 4 

Varied significantly to all the 24. letters, - - - 5 
A minute and perfect discourse by colors,* - 6 

To hold the same by night, 3 - - - - - 7 

To level cannons by night, ..... 8 

A ship-destroying engine, - - - - - 9 

How to be fastened from aloof, and underwater, - 10 
How to prevent both, - -- - - - -n 

An unsinkable ship, - - -- - - -12 

False destroying decks, - - - - - - 13 

Multiplied 4 strength in little room, . - - - 14 

A boat driven against wind and tide, - - - - 15 

i ' Index." 

s " A mute yet perfect discourse, as far distant as eye can reach by day 
to discern colors." 

3 ' Though never soe darke." 
< " Multiplying." 



4 CENTURY OF INVENTIONS. 

No. 
A sea-sailing fort, ------- 16 

A pleasant floating garden, - - - . . _ j* 
An hour-glass fountain, - - - . . - 18 
A coach-saving engine, - - - . . . jg 
A balance water-work, - - - . . -20 

A bucket-fountain, 2I 

An ebbing and flowing river, - - . . 22 

An ebbing and flowing castle clock, 1 - - . .33 

A strength-increasing spring, 24 

A'double drawing engine for \v eights, 2 - - . .35 

A to and fro lever, - 2 6 

A most easy level draught, 27 

A portable bridge, - - - . . -28 

A moveable fortification, 29 

A rising bulwark, ---.._ 30 

An approaching blind, , 

An universal character, 32 

A needle alphabet, 

A knotted string alphabet, 34 

A fringe alphabet, '"--- 35 

A bracelet alphabet, 3 6 

A pinked glove alphabet, - ,- 

A sieve alphabet, - ,g 

A lanthorn alphabet, ~ 

i " Flowing clock." 

a For weights wanting in the MS. 



CENTURY OF INVENTIONS. . 65 

No. 

smell, ----- 40 
An alphabet by the taste, 41 

touch, 42 

A variation of all and each of these, 1 - - - - 43 
A key pistol, - - - - - - - -44 

A most conceited tinder-box, 45 

An artificial bird, - - - - - - - -46 

An hour water-ball, - - - - - - -47 

A screwed ascent of stairs, 48 

A tobacco-tongs engine, 49 

A pocket-ladder, - - - - - - -50 

A rule of gradation, - - - - - - 51 

A mystical jangling of bells, - - - - - -52 

An hollowing of a water-screw, 53 

A transparent water-screw, - - - - - -54 

A double water-screw, - - - - - -55 

An advantageous change of centres, - - - - 56 

A constant water-flowing and ebbing motion, - - 57 
An often-discharging pistol, - - - - - - 58 

An especial way for carabines, - - - - 59 

A flask charger, -------- 60 

A way for musquets, - - - - - - 61 

A way for a harquebuss, or crock, - - - - 62 

For sakers 2 and minyons, ----- 63 

1 and each of these wanting. 

2 Forsacres. 



66 , CENTURY OF INVENTIONS. 

No. 
For the biggest cannon, 1 - - - - - - 64 

For a whole side of 2 ship musquets, 65 

For guarding several avenues to a tov/n, - - - 66 
For musquetoons on horseback, - - - 67 

A fire water-work, - - - - - - -68 

A triangle key, ...-.--69 
A rose key, ------ .-70 

A square key, with a turning screw, - - - -71 

An escutcheon for all locks, - - - - 72 

A transmittable gallery, - - - - - -73 

A conceited door, -------74 

A discourse woven in tape or ribbon, 3 - - - - 75 

To write in the dark, - - - - - - ?6 

A flying man, - - - - - - - -77 

A continually going watch, 4 - - - - -78 

A total 5 locking of cabinet boxes, - - - - - 79 

Light pistol barrels, -------80 

A combe- conveyance for letters, 6 - - - - 81 

A knife, spoon, or fork conveyance, - - - -82 

A rasping mill, ------- 83 

i " For whole cannon." 

* a whole side of wanting. 
or ribbon wanting. 

* " A continual watch." 
s A totaf wanting. 

e " 81. 82. Conveyance for letters." 



CENTURY OF INVENTIONS. 67 

No. 
An arithmetical instrument, - - - - - - 84 

An untoothsonie pear, ------ 85 

An imprisoning chair, - - - - - - -86 

A candle mould, --S----87 

A brazen head, or speaking figure, 1 - - - - 88 

Primero gloves, 2 ------- 89 

Adicing-box, 3 - - - - - - - -go 

An artificial ring-horse, - - - - - -91 

A gravel engine, -------- 93 

A ship-raising engine, ------ 93 

A pocket engine to open any door, - - - -94 

A double cross-bow, ------ 9^ 

A way for seabanks, - - - - - - - 96 

A perspective instrument, 97 

A semi-omnipotent engine, 98 

A most admirable way to raise weights, 4 99 

A stupendous water-work, 100 

1 Wanting entirely in the MS. 

2 " Stamping engine." 

3 " Primero gloves." The Marquis seems to have been in doubt which 
he should erase the brazen head or the dicing-box. 

Wanting in the MS. 



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liable to arise in building, such as selection of site, general arrangement or 
the plans, sanitary questions, etc. Cottages costing from $500 to $5,000 arc 
shown in considerable variety, and nearly every taste can be satisfied. 
Forty designs for fifty cents. Paper, 50c. 

The information on site, general arrangement of plan, sanitary matters, etc., 
etc., is worth a great deal more than the cost of the book. 

Water-Closets. 

A Historical, Mechanical and Sanitary Treatise. By GLENN BROWN, Archi- 
tect; Associate American Institute of Architects. Neatly Bound in Cloth, 
with Gilt Title, $1.00 

This book contains over 250 Engravings, drawn expressly for the work by (he 
author. The drawings are so clear that the distinctive features of every device 
are easily seen at a glance, and the descriptions are particularly full and 
thorough. The paramount importance of this department of the construction 
of our houses renders all comment upon the value of such a work unnecessary. 

Hints and Aids to Builders. 

Hints and Aids in Building and Estimating. Gives Hints, Prices, tells how 
to Measure, explains Building Terms, and, in short, contains a fund of in- 
formation for all who are interested in building. Paper, - - - 25c. 

Common Sense in the Poultry Yard. 

A Story of Failures and Successes. Including a full account of 1.000 Hens 
and What They Did. With a complete description of the Houses, Coops, 
Fences, Runs, Methods of Feeding, Breeding, Marketing, etc., etc. And 
Many New Wrinkles and Economical Dodges. By J. P. HMO. With 
numerous illustrations. 12mo., Cloth, Gilt, $1.00 



Hints for Cabinet Makers, Upholsterers, and Furniture Men. 

Hints and Practical Information for Cabinet-Makers, Upholsterers, and Fa 
niture Men generally. Together with a description of all kinds of Finishinj 
frith full directions therefor, Tarnishes, Polishes, Stains for Wood, Dyes f< 
Wood, Gilding and Silvering, Receipts for the Factory, Lacquers, Metal 
Marbles, etc.; Pictures, Engravings, etc.; Miscellaneous. This work coi 
tains an immense amount of the most useful information for those who ai 
engaged in Manufacture, Superintendence, or Construction of Furniture < 
Wood Work of any kind. It is one of the Cheapest and Best Books ev< 
published, and contains over 1,000 Hints, Suggestions, Methods, and T>> 
scriptions of Tools, Appliances and Materials. All the Recipes, Rules, an 
Directions have been carefully Revised and Corrected by Practical Men < 
great experience, so that they will be found thoroughly trustworthy. Clot! 
Gilt, ' $i.( 

Mechanical Draughting. 

The Student's Illustrated Guide to Practical Draughting. A series of Pra 
tical Instructions for Machinists, Mechanics, Apprentices, and Students i 
Engineering Establishments and Technical Institutes. By T. P. PEMBERTO: 
Draughtsman and Mechanical Engineer. Illustrated with numerous ei 
gravings. Cloth, Gilt, - $!.( 

This is a simple but thorough book, by a draughtsman of twenty-five year 
experience. It is intended for beginners and self-taught students, as well as ic 
those who pursue the study under the direction of a teacher. 

Lectures in a Workshop. 

By T. P. PEMBERTON, formerly Associate Editor of the " Technologist ; 
Author of " The Student's Illustrated Guide to Practical Draughting." Wit 
an appendix containing the famous papers by Whitworth 1% On Plane JI( 
tallic Surfaces or True Planes; " " On an Uniform System of Screw Threads; 
"Address to the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Glasgow;" "0 
Standard Decimal Measures of Length." Cloth, Gilt, ... $i.c 

We have here a sprightly, fascinating book, iill of valuable hints, interestin 
anecdotes and sharp sayings. It is not a compilation of dull sermons or dr 
mathematics, but a live, readable book. The papers by Whitworth, now fire 
made accessible to the American reader, form the basis of our modern system 
of accurate work. 

How to Use The Microscope. 

By JOHN PHIN. Fifth Edition. Greatly enlarged, with over eighty Illustra 
tions in the Text, and six full page Engravings, printed on heavy tin 
paper. Cloth, Gilt, $1.0' 

This is not a book describing what may be seen by the microscope, but a simpl< 
and practical work, telling how to use' the instrument in its application to tin 
arts. It has been prepared for the use of those who. having no knowledge o 
the use of the microscope, or, indeed, of any scientific apparatus, doire simph 
and practical instruction in the best methods of manairiii!: the instrument am 



The Engineer's Slide Rule and Its Applications. 

A Complete Investigation of the Principles upon which 
the Slide Eule is Constructed, together with the Method 
of its Application to all the-Purposes of the Practical 
Mechanic. By "William Tonkes. - - 25 cents. 

Rhymes of Science: Wise and Otherwise 

By O. W. Holmes, Bret Harte, Ingohlsby, Prof. Forbes, 
Prof. J. W. McQ. Bankine, Hon. B. W. Baymond, and 
others. With Illustrations. Cloth, Gilt Title, 50 cents. 
"Wo advise all our readers into whose souls . the sunlight of fun ever 
enters to purchase this little book. " Making light of cereous things " 
has been said, by a high authority to bo " awicked profession," but the 
genius which can balance the ponderosity of an ichthyosaur upon the 
delicate point of a euphonious rhyme, or bear aloft a bulky lepto- 
rhyncus on the sparkling foam of a soul-stirring love ditty, is worthy- 
worthy of a purchaser. Philadelphia Medical News. 

Instruction in the Art of Wood Engraving. 

A Manual of Instruction in the Art of Wood Engraving; 
with a Description of the Necessary Tools and Apparatus, 
and Concise Directions for their Use ; Explanation of 
the Terms Used, and the Methods Employed for Pro- 
ducing the Various Classes of Wood Engravings. By 
S. E. Fuller. Fully Illustrated with Engravings by the 
author, separate sheets of engravings for transfer 
and practice being added. New Edition, Neatly 
Bound, - - - 50 cents. 

What to Do in Case of Accident. 

What to Do and How to Do It in Case of Accident. A 
Book for Everybody. 12 mo., Cloth, Gilt Title, 50 cents. 

Th is is one of the most useful books ever published. It tells exactly 
what to do in case of accidents, such as Severe Cuts, Sprains, Disloca- 
tions, Broken Bones, Burns with Fire, Scalds, Burns with Corrosive 
Chemicals, Sunstroke. Suffocation by Foul Air, Hanging, Drowning, 
Frost-Bite, Fainting, Stings, Bites. Starvation, Lightning, Poisons, 
Accidents from Machinery and from the Falling of Scaffolding, Gun- 
shot Wounds, etc., etc. It ought to be in every house, for young and 
old nre liable to accident, and the directions given in this book might 
be the means of saving many a valuable life. 



A New Book for Bee-Keepers. 

A Dictionary of Practical Apiculture, giving the correct meaning of nearlj 
Five Hundred Terms, according to the usage of the best writers. Intendec 
as a Guide to Uniformity of Expression amongst Bee-Keepers. With Nu 
merous Illustrations, Notes, and Practical Hints. By JOHN PHIN, Authoi 
of "How to Use the Microscope," etc. Editor of the "Young Scientist.' 
Price, Cloth, Gilt, 50 cts 

This work gives not only the correct meaning of five hundred different words 
.specially used in bee-keeping, but an immense amount of valuable informatiot 
under the different headings. The labor expended upon it has been very great 
the definitions having been gathered from the mode in which the words an 
used by our best writers on bee-keeping, and from the Imperial, Richardson's 
Skeat's, Websters, Worcester's and other English Dictionaries. The technica 
information relating to matters connected with bee-keeping has been gatherec 
from the Technical Dictionaries of Brande, Muspratt, Ure, 'Wagner, Watts, anc 
others. Under the heads Ere, Comb, Glucose. Honey, ttace, Spcdes Sugar, Wai 
and others, it brings together a large number of important facts and figure: 
which are now scattered through our bee-literature, and through costly scientifii 
works, and are not easily found when wanted. Here they can be referred to a 
once under the proper bead. 

Haw to Become a Good Mechanic. 

Intended as a Practical Guide to Self-taught Men ; telHng What to Study 
What Books to Use ; How to Begin ; What Difficulties will be Met ; How t( 
Overcome Them. In a vs 3rd, how to carry on such a Course of Self-instruc 
tion as will enable the Young Mechanic to rise from the bench to something 
higher. Paper, ----------- 15 cts 

This is not a book of "goody-goody" advice, neither is it an advertisemen 
of any special system, nor does it advocate any hobby. It gives plain, practica 
advice in regard to acquiring that knowledge which alone can enable a youm 
man engaged in any profession or occupation connected with the industrial art! 
to attain a position higher than that of a mere workman. 

Cements and Glue. ' 

A Practical Treatise on the Preparation and Use of all Kinds of Cements 
Glue, and Paste. By JOHN* PHIN T , Editor of the "Young Scientist" and th< 
" American Journal of Microscopy." Stiff Covers, ... 25 cts 

Hints for Painters, Decorators and Paper-hangers. 

Being a selection of Useful Rules, Data, Memoranda, Methods and Sug 
gestions for House, Ship, and Furniture Painting, Paperhanging, Gilding 
Color Mixing, and other matters Useful and Instructive to Painters anc 
Decorators. Prepared with Special Reference to the Wants of Amateurs 
By an OLD HAXD. -----------25 cts 



Any of these books -will be sent post paid to any address 
receipt of price. 



The Workshop Companion. 

A Collection of Useful and Reliable Recipes, Rules, Processes, Methods, 
Wrinkles and Practical Hints for the Household and the Shop. Neatly 

Bound .----., 35 C . 

I'hls Ls a book of \.M closely printed pages, forming a Dictionary of Practical 
Information, for Mechanics, Amateurs, Housekeepers, Farmers, Everybody. It 
is not a mere collection of newspaper clippings, but a series of original treatises 
on various subjects- -:ch as Alloys, Cements, Inks, Steel, Signal Lights, Polish- 
ing Materials, and tne art of Polishing Wood. Metals, etc.; varnishes, Gilding, 
Silvering, Bronzing, Lacquering, and the working of Brass, Ivorv, Alabaster, 
Iron, Steel, Glass, etc. 

Carpenter's and Joiner's Pocket Companion. 

Containing Rules, Data and Directions for Laying Out Work and for Calcu- 
lating and Estimating. Compiled by THOMAS MOLOXKY, Carpenter and 
Joiner. Neatly Bound in Cloth, with Gilt Stamp and Red Edges, - 50 cts. 
This is a compact and handy little volume, containing enough matter that is 

not easily found anywhere else to make it worth more than Its price to every 

intelligent carpenter. 

Hints for Painters, Decorators and Paperhangers. 

Being a selection of Useful Rules, Data, Memoranda. Methods and Sugges- 
tions for House, Ship, and Furniture Painting, Paperhanging, Gilding, Color 
Mixing, and other matters Useful and Instructive to Painters and Decor- 
ators. Prepared with Special Reference to the Wants of Amateurs. By an 
OLD HAND, 25 cts. 

Drawing Instruments. 

Being a Treatise on Draughting Instruments, with Rules for their Use and 
Care. Explanations of Scale, Sectors and Protractors. Together with Memo- 
oranda for Draughtsmen, Hints on Purchasing Paper, Ink, Instruments, 
Pencils, etc. Also a Price List of all materials required by Draughtsmen. 
Illustrated with Twenty-four Explanatory Illustrations. By FUKD. T. 
HODGSON. Paper, 25c. 

Cements and Glue. 

A Practical Treatise on the Preparation and Use of all kinds of Cements, 
Glue and Paste. By JOHN PHIN, author of u How to Use the Microscope." 

Paper, - 25 cts. 

Contains nearly 200 recipes for the preparation of Cements for almost every 
conceivable purpose. 

d mm n Sense in the Poultry Yard - - $ .00 

What to Do in Case of Acci' ent - - 50c. 

How to Becirre a Good Mechanic - - 15c 

Rhym s of Science: Wise and Otherwiss - 50c. 

Shactin j on he Wing - - 75c. 

The Pi.tcl, and How to Use It - - 50c. 



Any of these books will be sent post paid to any address on receipt of price. 



testing on the Wing. 

Plain Directions for Acquiring ihe Art of Shooting on 
the "Wing. "With Useful Hints concerning all that relates 
to Guns and Shooting, and particularly in regard to the 
art of Loading so as to Kill. To which has been added 
several Valuable and hitherto Secret Becipes, of Great 
Practical Importance to the Sportsman. By an Old 
Gamekeeper. 
12mo., Cloth, Gilt Title. - 75 cents, 

The Pistol as a Weapon, of Defence, 

In the House and on the Boad. 
12mo., Cloth. ..... 50 cents. 

This work aims to instruct the peaceable and law-abiding citizens 
hi the best means of protecting themselves from the attacks of the 
brutal and the lawless, and is the only practical book published or 
this subject. Its contents are as follows : The Pistol as a Weapon ol 
Defence. The Carrying of Fire- Arms. Different kinds of Pistols ii 
Market; How to Choose a Pistol. Ammunition, different kinds; 
Powder, Caps, Bullets, Copper Cartridges, etc. Best form of Bullet- 
How to Load. Best Charge /or Pistols. How to regulate the 
Charge. Care of the Pistol; how to Clean it How to Handle and 
Carry the Pistol. How to Learn to Shoot Practical use of th 
Pistol ; how to Protect yourself and how to Disable your antagonist. 

Lightning Rods. 

Plain Directions for the Construction and Erection ol 
Lightning Bods. By John Phin, C. E., editor of "The 
Young Scientist," author of "Chemical History of the 
Six Days of the Creation," etc. Second Edition. En- 
larged and Fully Illustrated. 
12mo., Cloth, Gilt Title. - - ^ - 50 cents. 

This is a simple and practical little work, intended to convey jusl 
auch information as will enable every property owner to decide 
whether or not his buildings are thoroughly protected. It is nol 
written in the interest of any patent or particular article of manu- 
facture, and by following its directions, any ordinarily skilful me- 
chanic can nut up a rod that will afford perfect protection, and thai 
will not infringe aay patent Every cmnr-yr of a house or barn oujcb' 
tie procure a copy. 



Hours with a Three-Inch Telescope. 

By Capt. WILLIAM NOBLE, F. E. A. S., F. R. M. S., Honorary Associate 
of the Liverpool Astronomical Society, etc. 12mo., Cloth, - - SI. 50 
This book is even more elementary and practical than Webb's " Celestial 
Objects. It has been written to furnish the very beginner in observational 
astronomy with such directions as shall enable him to employ, to the greatest 
possible advantage, the kind of instrument with which he will, in all proba- 
bility, at first provide himself. 

Like our edition of Webb, the book has been made for us by the English pub- 
lishers, and is in all respects the same as the English edition. 

Celestial Objects for Common Telescopes. 

By the Rev. T. W. WEBB, M. A., F. R. A. S. Fourth Edition, Revised and 
< in-iil ly Enlarged. Fully Illustrated with Engravings and a large Map of 
the Moon. Cloth, - - . - 

This edition has been made for usty the English publishers, and is in every 
respect the same as the English edition. The work itself is too well known to 
require commendation at our hands. No one that owns even the commonest 
kind of a telescope can afford to do without it. 

" Many things deemed invisible to secondary instruments, are plain enough 
to one who knows how to see them." SMYTH. 

11 When an object is once discerned by a superior power, an inferior one 
will suffice to see it afterwards." SIB W. HERSCHKLL. 

The Sun. 

A Familiar Description of His Phenomena. Bylhe Rev. THOMAS WILLIAM 
WEBB, M. A., F. R. A. S., author of "Celestial Objects for Common Tele- 
scopes." With Numerous Illustrations. Cloth, - - lu-. 
This work gives in a delightfully popular style an account of the most recent 
discoveries in regard to the Sun. Il is very freely illustrated. 

Chemical History of the Six Days of Creation. 

By JOHX PHIX, author of "How to Use the Microscope.'' 12mo.. Cloth 75c. 
In this volume an attempt is made to trace the evolution of our globe from 
the primeval state of nebulous misl. "without form and void." and existing in 
"darkness." or with an entire absence of the manifestations of the physiral 
forces, to the condition in which it was fitted to become the habitation of man. 
Wliile the statements and conclusions arc rigidly ftdeutl fie, II gives some ex- 
ceedingly novel views of a rather hackneyed subject. 

Microscope Objectives. 

The Angular Aperture of Microscope Objectives. By Ir. C.EOUGE E. BLACK- 
HAM. 8vo., Cloth. Eighteen full page illustrations printed on extra fine 
paper, SI---" 1 

This is the elaborate paper on Angular Aperture, read by Dr. Blackham before 
the Microscopical Congress, held at Indianapolis. 

Marvels of Pond Life. 

A Year's Microscopic Recreations Among the Polyps. Inlusoria. Rotifers. 
Water Hears and Polyzoa. By HENRY .1. SLACK. V. <:. S.. K R. M. S., etc. 
Second Edition. Seven full paire Plates and Numerous Woo,] Eiiirravinir* 
in the text. I'Jino.. Cloth. 51.00 



Section Cutting. 

A. Practical Guide to the Reparation and Mounting 01 
Sections for the Microscope ; Special Prominence being 
^ven to the Subject of Animal Sections By Sylvester 
JUarsh. Reprinted from the London edition. With 
Illustrations. 12mo., Cloth, Gilt Title. 75 centa 

This is undoubtedly the most thorough treatise extant upon sectioi. 
cutting <n all its details. The American edition has been greatly 
enlarged by valuable explanatory notes, and also by extended direc- 
tions, illustrated with engravings, for selecting and sharpening 
knives and razors. 

A Book for Beginners with the Microscope. 

Being an abridgment of " Practical Hints on the Selection 
and Use of the Microscope." ByJohnPhin. Fully illus- 
trated, and neatly and strongly bound in boards. 30 cts. 
This book was prepared for the use of those who, having no know- 
ledge of the use of the microscope, or, indeed, of any scientific appar- 
atus, desire simple and practical instruction in the best methods ol 
managing the instrument and preparing objects. 

How to Use the Microscope. 

" Practical Hints on the Selection and Use of the Micro- 
scrope." Intended for Beginners. By John Phin, 
Editor of the "American Journal of Microscopy." 
Fourth Edition. Greatly enlarged, with over 80 engrav- 
ings in the text, and 6 full-page engravings, printed on 
heavy tint paper. 12mo., cloth, gilt title, - $1.00 



The Microscope. 

By Andrew Boss. Fully Illustrated. 12mo. ) Cloth, 
Gilt Title. 75 cents. 

This is the celebrated article contributed by Andrew Ross to the 
"Penny Cyclopaedia," and quoted so frequently by writers on the 
Microscope Carpenter and Hogg, in the last editions of their works 
on the Microscope, and Brooke, in his treatise on Natural Philoso- 
phy, all refer to this article as the best source for full and clear 
information in regard to the principles upon which the modern 
achromatic Microscope is constructed. It should ba in the library 
of every person to whom the Microscope is more than a toy. it ie 
Written in simole language, free from abstruse technicalities. 



FOURTH EDITION. Greatly Enlarged, with over 80 illustrations in the Ttxi 
ai.dd full page Engravings, printed on Heavy Tint Paper. i Vol. i-2mo., 240 
p.:ges. Neatly Bound in Cloth, Gilt Title. /Vv$i.oo. 

HOW TO USE THE MICROSCOPE. 

A SIMPLE AND PRACTICAL BOOK, INTENDED FOR BEGINNERS. 

BY JOHN PHIN, 
Editor of " The American Journal of Microscopy." 



CONDENSED TABLE OF CONTENTS. 

THE MICROSCOPE. What it Is; What it Does; Different Kinds of Microscopes ; 
Principles of its Construct on ; Names of the Different Parts. 

SIMPLE MICROSCOPES. Hand Magnifiers; Doublets; Power of Two or More 
Lenses When Used Together; Stanhope Lens; Coddiugtou Lens; Achromatic 
Doublets and Trip'ets ; Twenty-five Cent Microscopes Mid How to Make Them ; 
Penny Microscopes, to Show Eels in Paste and Vinegar. 

DISSECTING MICROSCOPES. Essentials of a Good Dissecting Microscope. 

COMPOUND MICROSCOPES. Cheap Foreign Stands ; The Ross Model; The Jackson 
Model; The Continental Model; The New American Model; Cheap American 
Stands; The Binocular Microscope; The Binocular Eye-piece; The Inverted Micro- 
scope; Lithological Microscopes; The Aquarium Microscope; Microscopes for 
Special Purpo-es; "Class" Microscopes. 

OBJECTIVES. Defects of Common Lenses; Spherical Aberration; Chromatic do. ; 
Corrected Objectives; Defining Power ; Achromatism; Aberration r . Form ; Flatness 
of Field ; Angular Aperture ; Penetrating Power '. Working Distan j ; Imnersion and 
"Homogeneous" Lenses; I) plex Fronts; French Triplets, etc., fee. 

TESTING OBJECTIVES. General Rules; Accepted Standards Diatoms, Ruled 
Lines, Artificial Star; Podura; Nobert's Lines; MSller's Probe Platte, etc., etc. 

SELECTION OF A MICROSCOPE Must be Adapted to Requirements and Skill of 
User; Microscopes for Botany; For Physicians; For Students. 

ACCESSORY APPARATUS. Stage Forceps; Forceps Carrier; Plain Slides; Concave 
Slides; Watch-Glass Holder; Animalcule Cage; Zoophyte Trough; The Weber Slide; 
The Cell-Trough ; The Compressorium ; Gravity Compressorium ; Growing Slides ; 
Frog Plate; Table; Double Nose-piece. 

ILLUMINATION. Sun-Light; Artificial Light Candles, Gas, Lamps, etc., etc. 

ILLUMINATION OF OPAQUE OBJECTS. Bulls-Eye Condenser; Side Reflector; The 
Lieberkuhn; The Parabolic Reflector; Vertical Illuminators. 

ILLUMINATION OF TRANSPARENT OBJECTS. Direct and Reflected Light; Axial or 
Central Ligh ; Oblique Light; The Achromatic Condenser; The Webster Condenser, 
and How to Use i-; Wenham's Reflex Illuminator, and How to Use it; The Wenham 
Prism; The "Half-Button;" The Woodward Illuminator; Tolles' Illuminating 
Traverse Lens; The Spot Lens; The Parabolic Illuminator; Polarized Light. 

How TO USE THE MICROSCOPE. General Rules; Hints to Beginners. 

How TO USE OBJECTIVES OF LARGE APERTURE. Collar-Correction, etc. 

CARE OF THE MICROSCOPE. Should be Kept Covered; Care of Objectives: Pre- 
cautions tr be Used when Corrosive Vapors and Liquids are Employed ; To Protect 
th Objectives from Vapors which Corrode Glass; Cleaning the Objectives; Cleaning 
th Brass Work. 

COLLECTING OBIECTS. Whereto Find Objects; What to Look for; How to Capture 
Them. 

THE PREPARATION AND EXAMINATION OF OBJECTS. Cutting Thin Sections of 
So r Substances; Valentine's Knife; Sections of Wood and Bone; Improved Section 
Cutter; Sections of Hock; Knives; Scissors; Needles; Dissecting Pans and Dishes ; 
Dissecting Microscopes; Separation of Deposits from Liquids; Preparing Whole 
Insects; Feet, Eye S Tongues, Wings, etc , of Insects; Use of Chemical Tests; Liquids 
for Moistening^ Objects; Refractive Powers of Different Liquids ; loil-Serum ; Artinc!? 1 
.od-Serum; Covers for Keeping Out Dust; Errors in Microscopic Observations. 

PRESERVATIVE PROCESSES. General Principles; Preservative Media. 

APPARATUS FOR MOUNTING OBJECTS. Slides; Covers; Cells; Turn-Tables, eic. 

CEMENTS AND VARNISHES. General Rules for Using. 

MOUNTING OBJECTS. Mounting Transparent Object- Dry; in Balsam; in Liquid* 
Whole Insects; How to Get Kid of Air- Bubbles; Mounting Opaque Objects. 

FINISHING THE SLIDES. Cabinets; Maltwood Finder; Microscopical Fallacies. 



A NEW SERIES OF PRACTICAL BOOKS. 

WORK MANUALS. 

The intention of the publishers is to give in this Series a number of small books which 
will give Thorough and Reliable Information in the plainest possible language, upon the 

OF EVE:R,YIJA.Y 



Each volume will be by some one who is not only practically familiar with his subject, 
but who has the ability to make it clear to others. The volumes will each contain from 



50 to 75 pages, will be neatly and clearly pnnted on good paper and b 

and durable binding. The price will be 25 cents each, or five for > 

The following are the titles of the volumes already issued. Others 



rid bound in tough 
'or One Dollar. 

already issued. Others will follow at 
short intervals. 

I. Cements and Glue. 

A Practical Treatise on the Preparation and Use of All Kinds of Cements, Glue 
and Paste. By JOHN PHIN, Editor of the Young Scientist and the A merican 
Journal of Microscopy 
Every mechanic and householder will find this volume of almost everyday use. It 

contains nearly 200 recipes for the preparation of Cements for almost every conceivable 

purpose. 

II. The Slide Rule, and How to Use It. 

This is a compilation of Explanations, Rules and Instructions suitable for mechanics 
and others interested in the industrial arts. Rules are given for the measurement of 
all kinds of boards and planks, timber ir. the round or square, glaziers' work and paint- 
ing, brickwork, paviors' work, tiling and slating, the measurement of vessels of various 
shapes, the wedge, inclined planes, wheels and axles, levers, the weighing and meas- 
urement of metals and all solid bodies, cylinders, cones, globes, octagon rules and 
formulae, the measurement of circles, and a comparison of French and English measures, 
with much other information, useful to builders, carpenters, bricklayers, glaziers, 
paviors, slaters, machinists and other mechanics. 

Possessed of this little Book and a good Slide Rule, mechanics might carry in their 
pockets some hundreds of times the power of calculation that they now have in the-_ 
heads, and the use of the instrument is very easily acquired. 
HI. Hints for Painters, Decorators and Paperhangers. 

Being a selection of Useful Rules, Data, Memoranda, Methods and Suggestions 
for House, Ship, and Furniture Painting, Paperhanging, Gilding, Color Mixing:, 
and other matters Useful and Instructive to Painters and Decorators. Prepared 
with Special Reference to the Wants of Amateurs. By an Old Hand. 
IT. Construction, Use and Care of Drawing Instruments. 

Being a Treatise on Draughting Instruments, with Rules for their Use and Care, 
Explanations of Scale ;, Sectors and Protractors. Together with Memoranda for 
Draughtsmen, Hints on Purchasing Paper, Ink, Instruments, Pencils, etc. Also a 
Price List of all materials required by Draughtsmen. Illustrated with twenty-four 
Explanatory Illustrations. By FRED. T. HODGSON. 
V. The Steel Square. 

Some Difficult Problems in Carpentry and Joinery Simplified and Solved by the 
aid of the Carpenters' Steel Square, together with a Full Description of the Tool, 
and Explanations of the Scales, Lines and Figures on the Blade and Tongue, and 
How to Use them in Everyday Work. Showing how the Square may be Used 
in Obtaining the Lengths and Bevels of Rafters, Hips, Groins, Braces, Brackets, 



Purlins, Collar-Beams, and Jack-Rafters. Also, its Application in Obtaining 
the Bevels and Cuts for Hoppers, Spring Mouldings, Octagons, Diminished 
Styles, etc., etc. Illustrated by Numerous Wood-cuts. By FRED. T. HODGSON, 



Author of the "Carpenters' Stee! Square." 
Note. This work is intended as an elementary introduction for the use of those who 
have not time to study Mr. Hodgson's larger work on the same subject. 



THE WORKSHOP COMPANION. 

A Collection of Useful and Reliable Recipes, 

Rules, Processes, Uletliods, Wrinlcles, 

and Practical Hints, 

FOR THE HOUSEHOLD J\*D THE SHOJR. 



Abyssinian Gold: Accidents, General Rules; Alabaster, how to work, polish and 
clean; Alcohol; Alloys, rules for making, and 26 recipes; Amber, how to work, 
polish and mend; Annealing and Hardening glass, copper, steel, etc.; Arsenical 
Soap; Arsenical Powder; Beeswax, how to bleach; Blackboards, how to make; 
Brass, how to work, polish, color, varnish, whiten, deposit by electricity, clean, etc., 
etc. ; Brazing and Soldering; Bronzing brass, wood, leather, etc.; Burns, how to 
cure; Case-hardening; Catgut, how prepared; Cements, general rules for using, and 
56 recipes for preparing : Copper, working, welding, depositing ; Coral, artificial; 
Cork, working; Crayons for Blackboards ; Curling brass, iron, etc.; Liquid Cu- 
ticle; Etching copper, steel, glass; Eye, accidents to; Fires, to prevent; Clothes on 
Fire; Fireproof Dresses; Fly Papers; Freezing Mixtures, 6 recipes; Fumigating 
Pastils; Gilding metal, leather, wood, etc.; Glass, cutting, drilling, turning in the 
lathe, fitting stoppers, removing tight stoppers, powdering, packing, imitating ground 
glass, washing glass vessels, etc. ; Grass, Dry, to stain ; Guns, to make shoot close, 
to keep from rusting, to brown the barrels of, etc., etc. ; Handles, to fasten ; Inks, 
rules for selecting and preserving, and 54 recipes for; Ink Eraser; Inlaying; Iron, 
forging welding, case-hardening, zincing, tinning, do. in the cold, brightening, etc., 
etc.; Ivory, to work, polish, bleach, etc. ; Javelle Water ;_Jewelry and Gilded Ware, 
care of, cleaning, coloring, etc. ; Lacquer, how to make and apply; Laundry Gloss ; 
Skeleton Leaves; Lights, signal and colored, also for tableaux, photography, etc., 25- 
recipes; Lubricators, selection of, 4 recipes for; Marble, working, polishing, clean- 
ing; Metals, polishing ; Mirrors, care of, to make, pure silver, etc., etc.; Nickel, 
to plate with without a battery; Noise, prevention of; Painting Bright Metals; 
Paper, adhesive, barometer, glass, tracing, transfer, waxed, etc. ; Paper, to clean, take 
creases out of, remove water stains, mount drawing paper, to prepare for varnishing, 
etc , etc. ; Patina; Patterns, to trace; Pencils, inde'ible; Pencil Marks, to fix; 
Pewter; Pillows for Sick Room, cheap and good ; ?la-,ier-of- Paris, how to work; 
Poisons, antidotes for, 12 recipes; Polishing Powders, preparation and use of (six 
pages); Resins, their properties, etc.; Saws, how to sharpen: Sieves; Shellac, 
properties and uses of; Silver, properties of, oxidized, old, cleaning, to remove ink 
stains from, to dissolve from plated goods, etc., etc. ; Silvering metals, leather, iron, 
etc. ; Size, preparation of various kinds of; Skins, tanning and curing, do with hair 
on; Stains, to remove from all kinds of goods; Steel, tempering and working (six 
pages): Tin, properties, methods of working; Varnish, 21 recipes for; Varnishing, 
directions for; Voltaic Batteries; Watch, care of; Waterproofing, 7 recipes for; 
Whitewash; Wood Floo.-s, waxing, staining, and polishing; Wood, polishing; 
Wood, staining, 17 recipes; Zinc, to pulverize, black varnish for. 

164 closely-printed pages, neatly bound. Sent bv mail for 36 cents 
(postage stamps received). 



NEW DESIGNS 

FOB 

Fret or Scroll Sawyers. 



MR. F. T. HODGSON, whose admirable series of articles on the USE OF THE 
SCROLL SAW are now in course of publication in the YOUNG SCIENTIST, has pre- 
pared for us a series of 

SEVENTEEN DESIGNS, 

of which the following is a list : 

No. i. This shows one side, back, and bottom, of a pen rack. It may be made 
of ebony, walnut, or other dark wood. 

No. 2. Design for inlaying drawer fronts, table tops, box lids, and many other 
things. It is a sumach leaf pattern. 

No. 3. Design for a thermometer stand. It may be made of any hard wood or 
alabaster. The method of putting together is obvious. 

No. 4. This shows a design for a lamp screen. The open part may be covered 
with tinted silk, or other suitable material, with some appropriate device worked oil 
with the needle, or, if preferred, ornaments may be painted on the silk, etc. 

No. 5. A case for containing visiting cards. Will look best made of white holly. 

No. 6. A placque stand, it may be made of any kind of dark 01 medium wood. 

No. 7. A design for ornaments suitable for a window cornice. It should be 
made of black walnut, and overlaid on some light colored hard wood. 

No. 8 A design for a jewel casket. This will be very pretty made of white holly 
and lined with blue velvet It also looks well made of ebony lined with crimson. 

No. 9. Frame. Will look well made of any dark wood. 

No. 10. Frame. Intended to be made in pairs. Looks well made of white holly, 
with leaves and flowers painted on wide stile. 

No. 11. Hovseshoe. Can be made of any kind of wood and used for a pen rack. 
When decorated with gold and colors, looks very handsome. 

No. 12. Design for a hinge strap. If made of black walnut, and planted on a 
white or oaken door, will look well. 

No. 13. Design for a napkin ring. May be made of any kind of hard wood. 

No. 14. Hinge strap for doors with narrow stiles. 

No. 15. Centre ornament for panel. 

No. 16. Corner ornament for panel. 

No. 17. Key-hole escutcheon. 

These designs we have had photo-lithographed and printed on good paper, so that 
the outlines are sharp, and the opposite sides of each design symmetrical. Common 
designs are printed from coarse wooden blocks, and are rough and unequal, to that 
it is often impossible to make good work from them. 

The series embraces over forty different pieces, and designs of equal quality cannot 
be had for less than five, ten or fifteen cents each. We offer them for twenty-five 
Cents for the set, which is an average price of only one cent and a half each. 
Mailed to any address on receipt of price. 





SHEET NO. 



REDUCED FIGURES OF 

NEW DESIGNS FOR FRET OR SCROLL SAWYERS. 

SIZE OF SHEETS s8 BY 22 INCHES. 

\For description see preceding page.) 



Si 



UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA LIBRARY 

Los Angeles 
This book is DUE on the last date stamped below 



MAR2&1 



Form L9-75m.7/61(Cl43764)444 




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